Hyponatremia
By:
Bryan M. Tucker Section of Nephrology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas

Search for other papers by Bryan M. Tucker in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
and
Alexandra Grand Section of Nephrology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas

Search for other papers by Alexandra Grand in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
  • Collapse
  • Expand
  • 1.

    Adrogue HJ, Tucker BM, Madias NE: Diagnosis and management of hyponatremia: A review. JAMA 328: 280291, 2022 PubMed

  • 2.

    Kaplon-Cieślicka A, Benson L, Chioncel O, Crespo-Leiro MG, Coats AJS, Anker SD, et al.: Hyponatraemia and changes in natraemia during hospitalization for acute heart failure and associations with in-hospital and long-term outcomes - From the ESC-HFA EORP Heart Failure Long-Term Registry. Eur J Heart Fail 25: 15711583, 2023 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Murashima M, Ambe K, Aoki Y, Kasugai T, Tomonari T, Ono M, et al.: Epidemiology and predictors of hyponatremia in a contemporary cohort of patients with malignancy: A retrospective cohort study. Clin Kidney J 16: 20722081, 2023 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Léveillé E, Aljassar M, Beland B, Saeedi RJ, Marcoux J: Determinants of hyponatremia following a traumatic brain injury. Neurol Sci 43: 37753782, 2022 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Kumar RV, Manchekar MP, Kashid M, Rajauria S, Rai SK: Does hyponatremia pose a risk factor for hip fractures in the elderly? Can a primary physician prevent it? J Family Med Prim Care 12: 18431848, 2023 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Kapoor M, Pathania M, Dhar M: Serum sodium improvement: Change in comprehensive geriatric assessment parameters in geriatric patients with hyponatremia. BMC Geriatr 23: 666, 2023 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Tzoulis P, Yavropoulou MP: Association of hyponatremia with bone mineral density and fractures: A narrative review. Ther Adv Endocrinol Metab 14: 20420188231197921, 2023 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Llorens P, Miró O, Veguillas Benito M, Fernández C, Jacob J, Burillo-Putze G, et al.: Plasma sodium concentration in older patients as an indicator of severity in emergencies: Results from the Emergency Department and Elder Needs-16 study. Emergencias 35: 279287, 2023 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Hoffmann DB, Popescu C, Komrakova M, Welte L, Saul D, Lehmann W, et al.: Chronic hyponatremia in patients with proximal femoral fractures after low energy trauma: A retrospective study in a level-1 trauma center. Bone Rep 12: 100234, 2020 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Kapoor M, Dhar M, Pathania M: The assessment of baseline comprehensive geriatric assessment parameters in geriatric patients with varying severity of hyponatremia at a tertiary care center. Cureus 14: e21516, 2022 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Królicka A, Letachowicz K, Adamik B, Doroszko A, Kaliszewski K, Kiliś-Pstrusińska K, et al.: Dysnatremia in COVID-19 patients–An analysis of the COLOS study. J Clin Med 12: 2802, 2023 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Ayus JC, Negri AL, Moritz ML, Lee KM, Caputo D, Borda ME, et al.: Hyponatremia, inflammation at admission, and mortality in hospitalized COVID-19 patients: A prospective cohort study. Front Med (Lausanne) 8: 748364, 2021 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Ng PY, Cheung RYT, Ip A, Chan WM, Sin WC, Yap DY-H, et al.: A retrospective cohort study on the clinical outcomes of patients admitted to intensive care units with dysnatremia. Sci Rep 13: 21236, 2023 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Khan A, Khan Z, Khan S, Ullah A, Ayub G, Tariq MN, et al.: Frequency of hyponatremia and its impact on prognosis in ischemic stroke. Cureus 15: e40317, 2023 PubMed

  • 15.

    Deenadayalan V, Karki S, Patel B, Kumi D, Zia M: Association of hyponatremia with clinical outcomes in patients admitted with acute pulmonary embolism. J Thromb Thrombolysis 55: 737741, 2023 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Sarastri Y, Zebua JI, Lubis PN, Zahra F, Lubis AC: Admission hyponatraemia as heart failure events predictor in patients with acute heart failure. ESC Heart Fail 10: 29662972, 2023 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Cole JH, Highland KB, Hughey SB, O’Shea BJ, Hauert T, Goldman AH, et al.: The association between borderline dysnatremia and perioperative morbidity and mortality: Retrospective cohort study of the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Database. JMIR Perioper Med 6: e38462, 2023 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Pinter J, Genser B, Moissl U, Stuard S, Kooman J, Canaud B, et al.: Hyponatraemia and fluid overload are associated with higher risk of mortality in dialysis patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant 38: 22482256, 2023 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Kim TH, Yim HJ, Jung YK, Song DS, Yoon EL, Kim HY, et al.: New prognostic model for hospitalized patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and Maddrey’s discriminant function <32. Hepatol Int 18: 500508, 2023 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Singh P, Arora S, Singh D, Kalra S, Singh A, Arora U, et al.: Hyponatremia and outcome: Is severity more important than etiology? Cureus 15: e42808, 2023 PubMed

  • 21.

    Rohrscheib M, Sam R, Raj DS, Argyropoulos CP, Unruh ML, Lew SQ, et al.: Edelman revisited: Concepts, achievements, and challenges. Front Med (Lausanne) 8: 808765, 2021 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Buchkremer F, Schuetz P, Mueller B, Segerer S: Classifying hypotonic hyponatremia by projected treatment effects – A quantitative 3-dimensional framework. Kidney Int Rep 8: 27202732, 2023 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Zettl J, Jaafar A, Shourick J, Tack I, Vallet M: Alteration of the maximal renal water excretion capacity with kidney function and age in human. Int Urol Nephrol 56: 14291438, 2023 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Adrogue HJ, Madias NE: The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis. N Engl J Med 389: 14991509, 2023 PubMed

  • 25.

    Warren AM, Grossmann M, Christ-Crain M, Russell N: Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis: From pathophysiology to management. Endocr Rev 44: 819861, 2023 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Hoenig MP, Lecker SH: Pattern recognition versus pathogenesis: Electrolytes in a patient with adrenal insufficiency. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 17: 585587, 2022 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Baez G, Chirio M, Pisula P, Seminario E, Carasa N, Philippi R, et al.: Hyponatremia and malnutrition: A comprehensive review. Ir J Med Sci 193: 10431046, 2023 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    de Haan L, Ten Wolde M, Beudel M, Olde Engberink RHG, Appelman B, Haspels-Hogervorst EK, et al.; Dutch COVID-PREDICT study group: What is the aetiology of dysnatraemia in COVID-19 and how is this related to outcomes in patients admitted during earlier and later COVID-19 waves? A multicentre, retrospective observational study in 11 Dutch hospitals. BMJ Open 13: e075232, 2023 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Pazos-Guerra M, Ruiz-Sánchez JG, Pérez-Candel X, López-Nevado C, Hernández-Olmeda F, Cuesta-Hernández M, et al.: Inappropriate therapy of euvolemic hyponatremia, the most frequent type of hyponatremia in SARS-CoV-2 infection, is associated with increased mortality in COVID-19 patients. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 14: 1227059, 2023 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Habas E, Ali E, Habas A, Rayani A, Ghazouani H, Khan F, et al.: Hyponatremia and SARS-CoV-2 infection: A narrative review. Medicine (Baltimore) 101: e30061, 2022 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Chu C-H, Chien W-C, Liu C-C, Chung C-H, Chen Y-C, Kuo F-C, et al.: An enigma of hypothyroidism and hyponatremia coexistence: A nationwide population-based retrospective study. BMC Public Health 23: 1889, 2023 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32.

    Chen J: Is there a causal relationship between hypothyroidism and hyponatremia? Ther Adv Endocrinol Metab 14: 20420188231180983, 2023 PubMed

  • 33.

    Li L, Guo Y, Chen C, Wang Z, Liu Z: Mechanisms of hyponatremia and diabetes insipidus after acute spinal cord injury: A critical review. Chin Neurosurg J 9: 32, 2023 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34.

    Maesaka JK, Imbriano LJ, Grant C, Miyawaki N: High prevalence of renal salt wasting induced by haptoglobin-related protein without signal peptide is linked to new syndrome of salt wasting in Alzheimer disease. Kidney Res Clin Pract 43: 3346, 2023 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35.

    Maesaka JK, Venkatesan J, Piccione JM, Decker R, Dreisbach AW, Wetherington J, et al.: Plasma natriuretic factor(s) in patients with intracranial disease, renal salt wasting and hyperuricosuria. Life Sci 52: 18751882, 1993 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36.

    Maesaka JK, Imbriano LJ, Pinkhasov A, Muralidharan R, Song X, Russo LM, et al.: Identification of a novel natriuretic protein in patients with cerebral-renal salt wasting–Implications for enhanced diagnosis. Am J Med Sci 361: 261268, 2021 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37.

    Murthy SB, Caplan J, Levy AP, Pradilla G, Moradiya Y, Schneider EB, et al.: Haptoglobin 2-2 genotype is associated with cerebral salt wasting syndrome in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Neurosurgery 78: 7176, 2016 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38.

    Rangan GK, Dorani N, Zhang MM, Abu-Zarour L, Lau HC, Munt A, et al.: Clinical characteristics and outcomes of hyponatraemia associated with oral water intake in adults: A systematic review. BMJ Open 11: e046539, 2021 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39.

    Rondon-Berrios H, Velez JCQ: Hyponatremia in cirrhosis. Clin Liver Dis 26: 149164, 2022 PubMed

  • 40.

    Sorodoc V, Asaftei A, Puha G, Ceasovschih A, Lionte C, Sirbu O, et al.: Management of hyponatremia in heart failure: Practical considerations. J Pers Med 13:140, 2023 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 41.

    Kaplon-Cieslicka A, Soloveva A, Mareev Y, Cabac-Pogorevici I, Verbrugge FH, Vardas P: Hyponatraemia in heart failure: Time for new solutions? Heart 108: 11791185, 2022 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 42.

    Ishikawa SE, Funayama H: Hyponatremia associated with congestive heart failure: Involvement of vasopressin and efficacy of vasopressin receptor antagonists. J Clin Med 12:1482, 2023 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 43.

    Yalta K, Palabıyık O, Gurdogan M, Yetkın E: Hyponatremia and takotsubo syndrome: A review of pathogenetic and clinical implications. Heart Fail Rev 29: 2744, 2023 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 44.

    Verbalis JG, Greenberg A, Burst V, Haymann J-P, Johannsson G, Peri A, et al.: Diagnosing and treating the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion. Am J Med 129: 537.e9–537.e23, 2016 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 45.

    Verbalis JG, Goldsmith SR, Greenberg A, Korzelius C, Schrier RW, Sterns RH, et al.: Diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of hyponatremia: Expert panel recommendations. Am J Med 126: S1S42, 2013 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 46.

    Spasovski G, Vanholder R, Allolio B, Annane D, Ball S, Bichet D; Hyponatraemia Guideline Development Group, et al.: Clinical practice guideline on diagnosis and treatment of hyponatraemia. Nephrol Dial Transplant 29 Suppl 2: i1i39, 2014 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 47.

    Hillier TA, Abbott RD, Barrett EJ: Hyponatremia: Evaluating the correction factor for hyperglycemia. Am J Med 106: 399403, 1999 PubMed

  • 48.

    Aziz F, Sam R, Lew SQ, Massie L, Misra M, Roumelioti M-E, et al.: Pseudohyponatremia: Mechanism, diagnosis, clinical associations and management. J Clin Med 12:4076, 2023 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 49.

    Kumar A, Ghosh M, Jacob JJ: Prevalence of adrenal insufficiency among patients with euvolemic hyponatremia. Endocr Connect 10: 16231631, 2021 PubMed

  • 50.

    Sirin I, Cigsar G, Sonmez BM: The role of ultrasonographic inferior vena cava measurement in the volume-based classification of patients with hyponatremia. J Ultrasound Med 42: 23912401, 2023 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 51.

    Rahman LR, Melson E, Alousi SA, Sardar M, Levy MJ, Shafiq S, et al.: Point-of-care ultrasound is a useful adjunct tool to a clinician’s assessment in the evaluation of severe hyponatraemia. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 100: 595601, 2024 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 52.

    Ruiz-Sánchez JG, Cuesta M, Gómez-Hoyos E, Cárdenas-Salas J, Rubio-Herrera , Martínez-González E, et al.: Changes in serum creatinine levels can help distinguish hypovolemic from euvolemic hyponatremia. Medicina (Kaunas) 58: 851, 2022 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 53.

    Bassi V, Apuzzi V, Sodano M, Fattoruso O: Euvolemic hypotonic hyponatremia in SIAD and thiazide-treated patients: Similarities and differences. J Nephrol 37: 527529, 2023 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 54.

    Decaux G, Musch W: The urine calcium/creatinine ratio and uricemia during hyponatremia of different origins: Clinical implications. J Clin Med 12:723, 2023 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 55.

    Filippatos TD, Liamis G, Christopoulou F, Elisaf MS: Ten common pitfalls in the evaluation of patients with hyponatremia. Eur J Intern Med 29: 2225, 2016 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 56.

    Liamis G, Milionis H, Elisaf M: A review of drug-induced hyponatremia. Am J Kidney Dis 52: 144153, 2008 PubMed

  • 57.

    Filippone EJ, Ruzieh M, Foy A: Thiazide-associated hyponatremia: Clinical manifestations and pathophysiology. Am J Kidney Dis 75: 256264, 2020 PubMed

  • 58.

    Mehta M, Goldfarb DS: Cumulative incidence of thiazide-induced hyponatremia: A population-based cohort study. Ann Intern Med 177: 111, 2024 PubMed

  • 59.

    Barber J, McKeever TM, McDowell SE, Clayton JA, Ferner RE, Gordon RD, et al.: A systematic review and meta-analysis of thiazide-induced hyponatraemia: Time to reconsider electrolyte monitoring regimens after thiazide initiation? Br J Clin Pharmacol 79: 566577, 2015 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 60.

    Liamis G, Christidis D, Alexandridis G, Bairaktari E, Madias NE, Elisaf M: Uric acid homeostasis in the evaluation of diuretic-induced hyponatremia. J Investig Med 55: 3644, 2007 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 61.

    Kim GH: Pathophysiology of drug-induced hyponatremia. J Clin Med 11:5810, 2022 PubMed

  • 62.

    Fibbi B, Marroncini G, Naldi L, Anceschi C, Errico A, Norello D, et al.: Hyponatremia and cancer: From bedside to benchside. Cancers (Basel) 15:1197, 2023 PubMed

  • 63.

    Bruining DM, van Roon EN, de Graaf H, Hoogendoorn M: Cyclophosphamide-induced symptomatic hyponatraemia. Neth J Med 69: 192195, 2011 PubMed

  • 64.

    Pelletier K, Škrtić M, Kitchlu A: Cancer therapy-induced hyponatremia: A case-illustrated review. J Onco-Nephrol 5: 7078, 2021 PubMed

  • 65.

    Kim S, Jo CH, Kim GH: The role of vasopressin V2 receptor in drug-induced hyponatremia. Front Physiol 12: 797039, 2021 PubMed

  • 66.

    Tamura N, Ishida T, Kawada K, Jobu K, Morisawa S, Yoshioka S, et al.: Risk factors for anticancer drug-induced hyponatremia: An analysis using the Japanese Adverse Drug Report (JADER) database. Medicina (Kaunas) 59:166, 2023 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 67.

    Seethapathy H, Rusibamayila N, Chute DF, Lee M, Strohbehn I, Zubiri L, et al.: Hyponatremia and other electrolyte abnormalities in patients receiving immune checkpoint inhibitors. Nephrol Dial Transplant 36: 22412247, 2021 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 68.

    Zhao Z, Zhao F, Jin P, Hu X, Tian C, Liu D, et al.: SSRI/SNRI-induced hyponatremia: A case series of 26 patients in a single institution from 2018 to 2020. Psychiatr Q 94: 113125, 2023 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 69.

    Petrykiv S, De Jonge L, Arts M: Hyponatremia associated with selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors. Eur Psychiatr 41: S758S758, 2017

  • 70.

    Mannheimer B, Falhammar H, Calissendorff J, Skov J, Lindh JD: Time-dependent association between selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and hospitalization due to hyponatremia. J Psychopharmacol 35: 928933, 2021 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 71.

    Nagashima T, Hayakawa T, Akimoto H, Minagawa K, Takahashi U, Asai S: Identifying antidepressants less likely to cause hyponatremia: Triangulation of retrospective cohort, disproportionality, and pharmacodynamic studies. Clin Pharmacol Ther 111: 12581267, 2022 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 72.

    Yamamoto Y, Ohta A, Usui N, Imai K, Kagawa Y, Takahashi Y, et al.: Incidence trends and risk factors for hyponatremia in epilepsy patients: A large-scale real-world data study. Heliyon 9: e18721, 2023 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 73.

    Ciauskaite J, Gelziniene G, Jurkeviciene G: Oxcarbazepine and hyponatremia. Medicina (Kaunas) 58:559, 2022 PubMed

  • 74.

    El-Alali E, Al Jaber E: Association of proton pump inhibitor use and significant hyponatremia–A US population-based case-control study. Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent) 35: 434436, 2022 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 75.

    Nair HP, Kulkarni AR, Eswaran M, Subeesh V: Pantoprazole associated dyspepsia hypocalcemia and hyponatremia: A disproportionality analysis in FDA adverse event reporting system (FAERS) database. Arab J Gastroenterol 24: 14, 2023 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 76.

    Issa I, Skov J, Falhammar H, Calissendorff J, Lindh JD, Mannheimer B, et al.: Time-dependent association between omeprazole and esomeprazole and hospitalization due to hyponatremia. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 79: 7177, 2023 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 77.

    Madieh J, Hasan B, Khamayseh I, Hrizat A, Salah T, Nayfeh T, et al.: The safety of intravenous peripheral administration of 3% hypertonic saline: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Med Sci 366: 135142, 2023 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 78.

    Moritz ML, Ayus JC, Nelson JB: Administration of 3% sodium chloride and local infusion reactions. Children (Basel) 9:1245, 2022 PubMed

  • 79.

    Juarez A, Barr M, Golden T: Hypertonic saline administration via intraosseous access during symptomatic hyponatremia. Cureus 15: e41731, 2023 PubMed

  • 80.

    Baek SH, Kim S: Optimal treatment with hypertonic saline in patients with symptomatic hyponatremia: A perspective from a randomized clinical trial (SALSA trial). Kidney Res Clin Pract 39: 504506, 2020 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 81.

    Zurnuq S, Aljurfi M, Albekery M, Shawaqfeh MS, Elmubark A, Vasudevan S, et al.: Hyponatremia management among patients admitted to tertiary hospital: A retrospective evaluation. SAGE Open Med 10: 20503121221095333, 2022 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 82.

    Pelouto A, Refardt JC, Christ-Crain M, Zandbergen AAM, Hoorn EJ: Overcorrection and undercorrection with fixed dosing of bolus hypertonic saline for symptomatic hyponatremia. Eur J Endocrinol 188: 322330, 2023 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 83.

    Massop K, Haverkort DA, Bech AP, de Boer H: NaCl 3% bolus therapy as emergency treatment for severe hyponatremia: Comparison of 100 ml vs 250 ml. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 108: e521e526, 2023 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 84.

    Kinoshita T, Mlodzinski E, Xiao Q, Sherak R, Raines NH, Celi LA, et al.: Effects of correction rate for severe hyponatremia in the intensive care unit on patient outcomes. J Crit Care 77: 154325, 2023 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 85.

    Sumi H, Imai N, Shibagaki Y: Incidence and risk factors of overcorrection in patients presenting with severe hyponatremia to the emergency department. Clin Exp Nephrol 26: 10861091, 2022 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 86.

    George JC, Zafar W, Bjcaloiu ID, Chang AR: Risk factors and outcomes of rapid correction of severe hyponatremia. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 13: 984992, 2018 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 87.

    Yang H, Yoon S, Kim EJ, Seo JW, Koo J-R, Oh YK, et al.: Risk factors for overcorrection of severe hyponatremia: A post hoc analysis of the SALSA trial. Kidney Res Clin Pract 41: 298309, 2022 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 88.

    Bastos AP, Rocha PN: Osmotic demyelination as a complication of hyponatremia correction: A systematic review. J Bras Nefrol 46: 4755, 2023 PubMed

  • 89.

    Tandukar S, Sterns RH, Rondon-Berrios H: Osmotic demyelination syndrome following correction of hyponatremia by </=10 mEq/L per day. Kidney360 2: 14151423, 2021 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 90.

    Arshad MF, Iqbal A, Weeks J, Fonseca I, Munir A, Bennet W: Hypertonic saline for severe symptomatic hyponatraemia: Real-world findings from the UK. Endocr Connect 11: e220007, 2022 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 91.

    MacMillan TE, Shin S, Topf J, Kwan JL, Weinerman A, Tang T, et al.: Osmotic demyelination syndrome in patients hospitalized with hyponatremia. NEJM Evid 2: EVIDoa2200215, 2023 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 92.

    Ayus JC, Moritz ML: Hyponatremia treatment guidelines—Have they gone too far? NEJM Evid 2: EVIDe2300014, 2023 PubMed

  • 93.

    Sterns RH, Rondon-Berrios H, Adrogué HJ, Berl T, Burst V, Cohen DM; PRONATREOUS Investigators, et al.: Treatment guidelines for hyponatremia: Stay the course. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 19: 129135, 2023 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 94.

    Rondon-Berrios H: Diagnostic and therapeutic strategies to severe hyponatremia in the intensive care unit [published online ahead of print Oct 11, 2023]. J Intensive Care Med doi:10.1177/08850666231207334 2023 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 95.

    Rondon-Berrios H: Therapeutic relowering of plasma sodium after overly rapid correction of hyponatremia: What is the evidence? Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 15: 282284, 2020 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 96.

    Nagase K, Watanabe T, Nomura A, Nagase FN, Iwasaki K, Nakamura Y, et al.: Predictive correction of serum sodium concentration with formulas derived from the Edelman equation in patients with severe hyponatremia. Sci Rep 13: 1783, 2023 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 97.

    Lawless SJ, Thompson C, Garrahy A: The management of acute and chronic hyponatraemia. Ther Adv Endocrinol Metab 13: 20420188221097343, 2022 PubMed

  • 98.

    Bondanelli M, Aliberti L, Gagliardi I, Ambrosio MR, Zatelli MC: Long-term low-dose tolvaptan efficacy and safety in SIADH. Endocrine 82: 390398, 2023 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 99.

    Monnerat S, Refardt J, Potasso L, Meier C, Christ-Crain M: An increase in plasma sodium levels is associated with an increase in osteoblast function in chronic SIAD. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 108: e1027e1033, 2023 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 100.

    Suárez V, Picotin R, Fassbender R, Gramespacher H, Haneder S, Persigehl T, et al.: Chronic hyponatremia and brain structure and function before and after treatment [published online ahead of print Jan 4, 2024]. Am J Kidney Dis doi:10.1053/j.ajkd.2023.11.007 2024 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 101.

    Furst H, Hallows KR, Post J, Chen S, Kotzker W, Goldfarb S, et al.: The urine/plasma electrolyte ratio: A predictive guide to water restriction. Am J Med Sci 319: 240244, 2000 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 102.

    Garrahy A, Galloway I, Hannon AM, Dineen R, O’Kelly P, Tormey WP, et al.: Fluid restriction therapy for chronic SIAD; results of a prospective randomized controlled trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 105: dgaa619, 2020 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 103.

    Warren AM, Grossmann M, Hoermann R, Zajac JD, Russell N: Tolvaptan versus fluid restriction in acutely hospitalised patients with moderate-profound hyponatraemia (TVFR-HypoNa): Design and implementation of an open-label randomised trial. Trials 23: 335, 2022 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 104.

    Krisanapan P, Vongsanim S, Pin-On P, Ruengorn C, Noppakun K: Efficacy of furosemide, oral sodium chloride, and fluid restriction for treatment of syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis (SIAD): An open-label randomized controlled study (The EFFUSE-FLUID trial). Am J Kidney Dis 76: 203212, 2020 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 105.

    Tang H, Xu C, Zhang P, Luo T, Huang Y, Yang X: A profile of SGLT-2 inhibitors in hyponatremia: The evidence to date. Eur J Pharm Sci 184: 106415, 2023 PubMed

  • 106.

    Refardt J, Imber C, Sailer CO, Jeanloz N, Potasso L, Kutz A, et al.: A randomized trial of empagliflozin to increase plasma sodium levels in patients with the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis. J Am Soc Nephrol 31: 615624, 2020 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 107.

    Refardt J, Imber C, Nobbenhuis R, Sailer CO, Haslbauer A, Monnerat S, et al.: Treatment effect of the SGLT2 inhibitor empagliflozin on chronic syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis: Results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. J Am Soc Nephrol 34: 322332, 2023 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 108.

    Yeoh SE, Docherty KF, Jhund PS, Petrie MC, Inzucchi SE, Köber L, et al.: Relationship of dapagliflozin with serum sodium: Findings from the DAPA-HF trial. JACC Heart Fail 10: 306318, 2022 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 109.

    Charaya K, Shchekochikhin D, Agadzhanyan A, Vashkevich M, Chashkina M, Kulikov V, et al.: Impact of dapagliflozin treatment on serum sodium concentrations in acute heart failure. Cardiorenal Med 13: 101108, 2023 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 110.

    Ruocco G, Verbrugge FH, Nuti R, Palazzuoli A: Hyponatremia in acute heart failure in relation to hematocrit levels: Clinical relevance and prognostic implication. Cardiorenal Med 8: 259270, 2018 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 111.

    Monnerat S, Atila C, Refardt J, Christ-Crain M: Prevalence of admission hyponatremia in patients with diabetes treated with and without an SGLT2 inhibitor. J Endocr Soc 7: bvad011, 2023 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 112.

    Woudstra J, de Boer MP, Hempenius L, van Roon EN: Urea for hyponatraemia due to the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion. Neth J Med 78: 125131, 2020 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 113.

    Perelló-Camacho E, Pomares-Gómez FJ, López-Penabad L, Mirete-López RM, Pinedo-Esteban MR, Domínguez-Escribano JR, et al.: Clinical efficacy of urea treatment in syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion. Sci Rep 12: 10266, 2022 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 114.

    Martínez González ÁM, Rodeiro Escobar P, Llópiz Castedo J, Díaz Vázquez M, Sánchez Juanas FL, Villar Carballo M, et al.: Effectiveness of urea administration for the treatment of hyponatremia in heart failure. Med Clin (Engl) 162: 5659, 2023 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 115.

    Hammonds WM, Keating EA, Smetana ME, Smetana KS, Bond MM: Safety and efficacy of urea for hyponatremia. Hosp Pharm 57: 365369, 2022 PubMed

  • 116.

    Wendt R, Fenves AZ, Geisler BP: Use of urea for the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone: A systematic review. JAMA Netw Open 6: e2340313, 2023 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 117.

    Monnerat S, Atila C, Baur F, Santos de Jesus J, Refardt J, Dickenmann M, et al.: Effect of protein supplementation on plasma sodium levels in the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis: A monocentric, open-label, proof-of-concept study–The TREASURE study. Eur J Endocrinol 189: 252261, 2023 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 118.

    Martinez A, Rodríguez A, Corral M, Reyes E, Rodríguez S: Hyponatremia treatment with oral urea in heart failure. Endocrinol Diabetes Nutr (Engl Ed) 69: 303304, 2022 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 119.

    Colombo F, Milani M: Palatability of two different formulations of urea for the treatment of hyponatremia: A double-blind, randomized, cross-over study. Clin Nutr ESPEN 58: 350354, 2023 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 120.

    Cukoski S, Osterholt T, Suárez V, Hackl MJ, Grundmann F, Burst V, et al.: Sodium evolution in hyponatraemia: A mixed effects model analysis of the Hyponatraemia Registry. Eur J Endocrinol 188: 526535, 2023 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 121.

    Pose-Reino A, Runkle de la Vega I, de Jong-Laird A, Kabra M, Lindner U: Real-world, non-interventional, retrospective study (SAMPLE) of tolvaptan in patients with hyponatraemia secondary to the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion. Adv Ther 38: 10551067, 2021 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 122.

    Hagiwara D, Matsukawa M, Tasaki J, Nakamura Y, Arima H: A retrospective study on tolvaptan prescription in clinical practice in patients with syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) using the Japanese claims database. Endocr J 70: 11951205, 2023 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 123.

    Krisanapan P, Tangpanithandee S, Thongprayoon C, Pattharanitima P, Kleindienst A, Miao J, et al.: Safety and efficacy of vaptans in the treatment of hyponatremia from syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH): A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Med 12:5483, 2023 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 124.

    Kleindienst A, Georgiev S, Schlaffer SM, Buchfelder M: Tolvaptan versus fluid restriction in the treatment of hyponatremia resulting from SIADH following pituitary surgery. J Endocr Soc 4: bvaa068, 2020 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 125.

    Bai Z, Xu W, Chai L, Zheng X, Méndez-Sánchez N, Philips CA, et al.: Effects of short-term human albumin infusion for the prevention and treatment of hyponatremia in patients with liver cirrhosis. J Clin Med 12:107, 2022 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 126.

    Zaccherini G, Baldassarre M, Tufoni M, Nardelli S, Piano S, Alessandria C, et al.; ANSWER Study Investigators: Correction and prevention of hyponatremia in patients with cirrhosis and ascites: Post hoc analysis of the ANSWER study database. Am J Gastroenterol 118: 168173, 2023 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 127.

    Zheng X, Bai Z, Wang T, Romeiro FG, Mancuso A, Philips CA, et al.: Human albumin infusion for the management of liver cirrhosis and its complications: An overview of major findings from meta-analyses. Adv Ther 40: 14941529, 2023 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 128.

    Bai Z, Wang L, Lin H, Tacke F, Cheng G. Qi X: Use of human albumin administration for the prevention and treatment of hyponatremia in p,tients with liver cirrhosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Med 11:5928, 2022 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 129.

    Bai Z, Méndez-Sánchez N, Romeiro FG, Mancuso A, Philips CA, Tacke F, et al.: Use of albumin infusion for cirrhosis-related complications: An international position statement. JHEP Rep 5: 100785, 2023 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 130.

    Ismail B, Charnigo R, Ali SM, Alkhairi B, Benrajab K, Singh H, et al.: Impact of octreotide on sodium level in cirrhotic inpatients with hyponatremia: A retrospective study. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 35: 13941401, 2023 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 131.

    Pinkhasov A, Xiong G, Bourgeois JA, Heinrich TW, Huang H, Coriolan S, et al.: Management of SIADH-related hyponatremia due to psychotropic medications - An expert consensus from the Association of Medicine and Psychiatry. J Psychosom Res 151: 110654, 2021 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 132.

    Hoorn EJ, Zietse R: Diagnosis and treatment of hyponatremia: Compilation of the guidelines. J Am Soc Nephrol 28: 13401349, 2017 PubMed

  • 133.

    Galindo DEB, Ruiz-Sánchez JG, Martínez AF, Runkle de la Vega I, Ferrer García JC, Ropero-Luis G, et al.: Consensus document on the management of hyponatraemia of the Acqua Group of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition. Endocrinol Diabetes Nutr (Engl Ed) 70: 726, 2023 PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 388 388 388
Full Text Views 253 253 253
PDF Downloads 354 354 354