Updates in the Risk and Treatment of Hyperkalemia in CKD Patients
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Alice M. Sheridan Renal Division, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts

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  • 1.

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    Cornelius RJ, Maeoka Y, McCormick JA: Renal effects of cullin 3 mutations causing familial hyperkalemic hypertension. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens 32: 335343, 2023 PubMed

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    Heidenreich PA, Bozkurt B, Aguilar D, Allen LA, Byun JJ, Colvin MM, et al.: 2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA guideline for the management of heart failure: Executive summary: A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Joint Committee on Clinical Practice Guidelines. Circulation 145: e876e894, 2022 PubMed

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    McDonagh TA, Metra M, Adamo M, Gardner RS, Baumbach A, Böhm M, et al.; ESC Scientific Document Group: 2021 ESC guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure. Eur Heart J 42: 35993726, 2021 PubMed

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    KDIGO CKD Work Group: KDIGO 2024 clinical practice guideline for the evaluation and management of chronic kidney disease. Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) CKD Work Group. Kidney Int 105[4S]: S117S314, 2024 PubMed

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    de Boer IH, Khunti K, Sadusky T, Tuttle KR, Neumiller JJ, Rhee CM, et al.: Diabetes management in chronic kidney disease: A consensus report by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO). Diabetes Care 45: 30753090, 2022 PubMed

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    Rassi AN, Cavender MA, Fonarow GC, Cannon CP, Hernandez AF, Peterson ED, et al.: Temporal trends and predictors in the use of aldosterone antagonists post-acute myocardial infarction. J Am Coll Cardiol 61: 3540, 2013 PubMed

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    Rossignol P, Lainscak M, Crespo-Leiro MG, Laroche C, Piepoli MF, Filippatos G, et al.; Heart Failure Long-Term Registry Investigators Group: Unravelling the interplay between hyperkalaemia, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone inhibitor use and clinical outcomes. Data from 9222 chronic heart failure patients of the ESC-HFA-EORP Heart Failure Long-Term Registry. Eur J Heart Fail 22: 13781389, 2020 PubMed

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    Epstein M, Reaven NL, Funk SE, McGaughey KJ, Oestreicher N, Knispel J: Evaluation of the treatment gap between clinical guidelines and the utilization of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors. Am J Manag Care 21[Suppl]: S212S220, 2015 PubMed

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  • 16.

    Leon SJ, Whitlock R, Rigatto C, Komenda P, Bohm C, Sucha E, et al.: Hyperkalemia-related discontinuation of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors and clinical outcomes in CKD: A population-based cohort study. Am J Kidney Dis 80: 164173.e1, 2022 PubMed

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  • 17.

    Palmer BF, Clegg DJ: Managing hyperkalemia to enable guideline-recommended dosing of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors. Am J Kidney Dis 80: 158160, 2022 PubMed

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  • 18.

    Agarwal R, Pitt B, Palmer BF, Kovesdy CP, Burgess E, Filippatos G, et al.: A comparative post hoc analysis of finerenone and spironolactone in resistant hypertension in moderate-to-advanced chronic kidney disease. Clin Kidney J 16: 293302, 2022 PubMed

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  • 20.

    Neuen BL, Oshima M, Perkovic V, Agarwal R, Arnott C, Bakris G, et al. Effects of canagliflozin on serum potassium in people with diabetes and chronic kidney disease: The CREDENCE trial. Eur Heart J 42: 48914901, 2021 PubMed

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  • 21.

    Agarwal R, Rossignol P, Romero A, Garza D, Mayo MR, Warren S, et al.: Patiromer versus placebo to enable spironolactone use in patients with resistant hypertension and chronic kidney disease (AMBER): A phase 2, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 394: 15401550, 2019 PubMed

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  • 22.

    Noel JA, Bota SE, Petrcich W, Garg AX, Carrero JJ, Harel Z, et al.: Risk of hospitalization for serious adverse gastrointestinal events associated with sodium polystyrene sulfonate use in patients of advanced age. JAMA Intern Med 179: 10251033, 2019 PubMed

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  • 23.

    Palmer BF, Carrero JJ, Clegg DJ, Colbert GB, Emmett M, Fishbane S, et al.: Clinical management of hyperkalemia. Mayo Clin Proc 96: 744762, 2021 PubMed

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    Laureati P, Xu Y, Trevisan M, Schalin L, Mariani I, Bellocco R, et al.: Initiation of sodium polystyrene sulphonate and the risk of gastrointestinal adverse events in advanced chronic kidney disease: a nationwide study. Nephrol Dial Transplant 35: 15181526, 2020 PubMed

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  • 25.

    Bounthavong M, Butler J, Dolan CM, Dunn JD, Fisher KA, Oestreicher N, et al.: Cost-effectiveness analysis of patiromer and spironolactone therapy in heart failure patients with hyperkalemia. PharmacoEconomics 36: 14631473, 2018 PubMed

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  • 26.

    Clase CM, Carrero JJ, Ellison DH, Grams ME, Hemmelgarn BR, Jardine MJ, et al.; Conference Participants: Potassium homeostasis and management of dyskalemia in kidney diseases: Conclusions from a Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Controversies conference. Kidney Int 97: 4261, 2020 PubMed

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  • 27.

    Galloway CD, Valys AV, Shreibati JB, Treiman DL, Petterson FL, Gundotra VP, et al.; Development and validation of a deep-learning model to screen for hyperkalemia from the electrocardiogram. JAMA Cardiol 4: 428436, 2019 PubMed

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