Transplantation
By:
Sarah J. Kizilbash Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota Children’s Hospital, Minneapolis, Minnesota

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  • 1.

    United States Renal Data System: Annual data report: ESRD among children and adolescents, 2022. Available at: https://usrds-adr.niddk.nih.gov/2022/end-stage-renal-disease/8-esrd-among-children-and-adolescents. Accessed January 20, 2024

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  • 2.

    Amaral S: Secular trends in survival outcomes of kidney transplantation for children: Is the future bright enough? Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 15: 308310, 2020 PubMed

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  • 3.

    Chavers BM, Molony JT, Solid CA, Rheault MN, Collins AJ: One-year mortality rates in US children with end-stage renal disease. Am J Nephrol 41: 121128, 2015 PubMed

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  • 4.

    Lentine KL, Smith JM, Miller JM, Bradbrook K, Larkin L, Weiss S, et al.: OPTN/SRTR 2021 annual data report: Kidney. Am J Transplant 23[Suppl 1]: S21S120, 2023 PubMed

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  • 5.

    Winterberg PD, Garro R: Long-term outcomes of kidney transplantation in children. Pediatr Clin North Am 66: 269280, 2019 PubMed

  • 6.

    Kizilbash SJ, Evans MD, Chavers BM: Survival benefit of donation after circulatory death kidney transplantation in children compared with remaining on the waiting list for a kidney donated after brain death. Transplantation 106: 575583, 2022 PubMed

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  • 7.

    Kizilbash SJ, Rheault MN, Wang Q, Vock DM, Chinnakotla S, Pruett T, et al.: Kidney transplant outcomes associated with the use of increased risk donors in children. Am J Transplant 19: 16841692, 2019 PubMed

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  • 8.

    Amatya K, Monnin K, Steinberg Christofferson E: Psychological functioning and psychosocial issues in pediatric kidney transplant recipients. Pediatr Transplant 25: e13842, 2021 PubMed

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  • 9.

    Cushman GK, Stolz MG, Blount RL, Reed B: Executive functioning in pediatric solid organ transplant recipients: A meta-analytic review. Transplantation 104: 357366, 2020 PubMed

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  • 10.

    Chadban SJ, Ahn C, Axelrod DA, Foster BJ, Kasiske BL, Kher V, et al.: KDIGO clinical practice guideline on the evaluation and management of candidates for kidney transplantation. Transplantation 2020;104(4S1 Suppl 1):S11S103

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  • 11.

    van Stralen KJ, Borzych-Dużalka D, Hataya H, Kennedy SE, Jager KJ, Verrina E, et al.; ESPN/ERA-EDTA registry; IPPN registry; ANZDATA registry; Japanese RRT registry: Survival and clinical outcomes of children starting renal replacement therapy in the neonatal period. Kidney Int 86: 168174, 2014 PubMed

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  • 12.

    Wang CS, Greenbaum LA, Patzer RE, Garro R, Warshaw B, George RP, et al.: Renal allograft loss due to renal vascular thrombosis in the US pediatric renal transplantation. Pediatr Nephrol 34: 15451555, 2019 PubMed

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  • 13.

    Kizilbash SJ, Evans MD, Vock DM, Chinnakotla S, Chavers BM: Should children receive a kidney transplant before 2 years of age? Pediatr Transplant 28: e14631, 2024 PubMed

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  • 14.

    Hogan J, Bacchetta J, Charbit M, Roussey G, Novo R, Tsimaratos M, et al.; French Pediatric Nephrology Society: Patient and transplant outcome in infants starting renal replacement therapy before 2 years of age. Nephrol Dial Transplant 33: 14591465, 2018 PubMed

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  • 15.

    Muramatsu M, Mizutani T, Hamasaki Y, Takahashi Y, Itabashi Y, Kubota M, et al.: Transplantation of adult-size kidneys in small pediatric recipients: A single-center experience. Pediatr Transplant 23: e13401, 2019 PubMed

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  • 16.

    Lee JM, Jung YK, Bae JH, Yoon SA, Kim JH, Choi Y, et al.: Delayed transplantation may affect intellectual ability in children. Pediatr Int 59: 10801086, 2017

  • 17.

    Hartmann H, Hawellek N, Wedekin M, Vogel C, Das AM, Balonwu K, et al.: Early kidney transplantation improves neurocognitive outcome in patients with severe congenital chronic kidney disease. Transpl Int 28: 429436, 2015 PubMed

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  • 18.

    Chua A, Cramer C, Moudgil A, Martz K, Smith J, Blydt-Hansen T, et al.; NAPRTCS investigators: Kidney transplant practice patterns and outcome benchmarks over 30 years: The 2018 report of the NAPRTCS. Pediatr Transplant 23: e13597, 2019 PubMed

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  • 19.

    Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Transplant Work Group: KDIGO clinical practice guideline for the care of kidney transplant recipients. Am J Transplant 9[Suppl 3]: S1S155, 2009 PubMed

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  • 20.

    Balani SS, Jensen CJ, Kouri AM, Kizilbash SJ: Induction and maintenance immunosuppression in pediatric kidney transplantation—Advances and controversies. Pediatr Transplant 25: e14077, 2021 PubMed

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  • 21.

    Offner G, Toenshoff B, Höcker B, Krauss M, Bulla M, Cochat P, et al.: Efficacy and safety of basiliximab in pediatric renal transplant patients receiving cyclosporine, mycophenolate mofetil, and steroids. Transplantation 86: 12411248, 2008 PubMed

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  • 22.

    Grenda R, Watson A, Vondrak K, Webb NJ, Beattie J, Fitzpatrick M, et al.: A prospective, randomized, multicenter trial of tacrolimus-based therapy with or without basiliximab in pediatric renal transplantation. Am J Transplant 6: 16661672, 2006 PubMed

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  • 23.

    Mincham CM, Wong G, Teixeira-Pinto A, Kennedy S, Alexander S, Larkins N, et al.: Induction therapy, rejection, and graft outcomes in pediatric and adolescent kidney transplant recipients. Transplantation 101: 21462151, 2017 PubMed

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  • 24.

    Crowson CN, Reed RD, Shelton BA, MacLennan PA, Locke JE: Lymphocyte-depleting induction therapy lowers the risk of acute rejection in African American pediatric kidney transplant recipients. Pediatr Transplant 21: doi:10.1111/petr.12823, 2017 PubMed

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  • 25.

    Puliyanda DP, Pizzo H, Rodig N, Somers MJG: Early outcomes comparing induction with antithymocyte globulin vs alemtuzumab in two steroid-avoidance protocols in pediatric renal transplantation. Pediatr Transplant 24: e13685, 2020 PubMed

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  • 26.

    Riad S, Jackson S, Chinnakotla S, Verghese P: Primary pediatric live-donor-kidney transplant-recipients’ outcomes by immunosuppression induction received in the United States. Pediatr Transplant 25: e13925, 2021 PubMed

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  • 27.

    Riad S, Jackson S, Chinnakotla S, Verghese P: Primary pediatric deceased-donor kidney transplant recipients outcomes by immunosuppression induction received in the United States. Pediatr Transplant 25: e13928, 2021 PubMed

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  • 28.

    Trompeter R, Filler G, Webb NJ, Watson AR, Milford DV, Tyden G, et al.: Randomized trial of tacrolimus versus cyclosporin microemulsion in renal transplantation. Pediatr Nephrol 17: 141149, 2002 PubMed

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  • 29.

    Neu AM, Ho PL, Fine RN, Furth SL, Fivush BA: Tacrolimus vs. cyclosporine A as primary immunosuppression in pediatric renal transplantation: A NAPRTCS study. Pediatr Transplant 7: 217222, 2003 PubMed

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  • 30.

    Wagner M, Earley AK, Webster AC, Schmid CH, Balk EM, Uhlig K: Mycophenolic acid versus azathioprine as primary immunosuppression for kidney transplant recipients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2015: CD007746, 2015 PubMed

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  • 31.

    Al-Mowaina S: Azathioprine versus mycophenolate mofetil in combination with tacrolimus and steroids maintenance in pediatric kidney transplantation. Transplantation 102: S839, 2018

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  • 32.

    Harmon W, Meyers K, Ingelfinger J, McDonald R, McIntosh M, Ho M, et al.: Safety and efficacy of a calcineurin inhibitor avoidance regimen in pediatric renal transplantation. J Am Soc Nephrol 17: 17351745, 2006 PubMed

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  • 33.

    Tönshoff B, Ettenger R, Dello Strologo L, Marks SD, Pape L, Tedesco-Silva H Jr, et al.: Early conversion of pediatric kidney transplant patients to everolimus with reduced tacrolimus and steroid elimination: Results of a randomized trial. Am J Transplant 19: 811822, 2019 PubMed

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  • 34.

    Vincenti F, Larsen C, Durrbach A, Wekerle T, Nashan B, Blancho G, et al.; Belatacept Study Group: Costimulation blockade with belatacept in renal transplantation. N Engl J Med 353: 770781, 2005 PubMed

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  • 35.

    Lerch C, Kanzelmeyer NK, Ahlenstiel-Grunow T, Froede K, Kreuzer M, Drube J, et al.: Belatacept after kidney transplantation in adolescents: A retrospective study. Transpl Int 30: 494501, 2017 PubMed

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  • 36.

    Blew KH, Chua A, Foreman J, Gbadegesin R, Jackson A, Nagaraj S, et al.: Tailored use of belatacept in adolescent kidney transplantation. Am J Transplant 20: 884888, 2020 PubMed

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  • 37.

    Hogan J, Duneton C, George R, Anne-Laure S-L, Dunand O, Baudoin V, et al.: Belatacept outcomes in pediatric kidney transplantation: An international multicenter study. Nephrol Dial Transplant 38(Suppl 1): S47S48, 2023

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  • 38.

    Kizilbash SJ, Jensen CJ, Kouri AM, Balani SS, Chavers B: Steroid avoidance/withdrawal and maintenance immunosuppression in pediatric kidney transplantation. Pediatr Transplant 26: e14189, 2022 PubMed

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  • 39.

    Zhang H, Zheng Y, Liu L, Fu Q, Li J, Huang Q, et al.: Steroid avoidance or withdrawal regimens in paediatric kidney transplantation: A meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. PLoS One 11: e0146523, 2016 PubMed

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  • 40.

    Höcker B, Weber LT, Feneberg R, Drube J, John U, Fehrenbach H, et al.: Improved growth and cardiovascular risk after late steroid withdrawal: 2-year results of a prospective, randomised trial in paediatric renal transplantation. Nephrol Dial Transplant 25: 617624, 2010 PubMed

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  • 41.

    Seifert ME, Yanik MV, Feig DI, Hauptfeld-Dolejsek V, Mroczek-Musulman EC, Kelly DR, et al.: Subclinical inflammation phenotypes and long-term outcomes after pediatric kidney transplantation. Am J Transplant 18: 21892199, 2018 PubMed

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  • 42.

    Dandamudi R, Gu H, Goss CW, Walther L, Dharnidharka VR: Longitudinal evaluation of donor-derived cell-free DNA in pediatric kidney transplantation. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 17: 16461655, 2022 PubMed

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  • 43.

    Ranch D, Fei M, Kincade E, Piburn K, Hitchman K, Klein K: Utilization of donor-derived cell-free DNA in pediatric kidney transplant recipients: A single center study. Pediatr Transplant 28: e14582, 2024 PubMed

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  • 44.

    Friedewald JJ, Kurian SM, Heilman RL, Whisenant TC, Poggio ED, Marsh C, et al.; Clinical Trials in Organ Transplantation 08 (CTOT-08): Development and clinical validity of a novel blood-based molecular biomarker for subclinical acute rejection following kidney transplant. Am J Transplant 19: 98109, 2019 PubMed

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  • 45.

    Schinstock CA, Gandhi MJ, Stegall MD: Interpreting anti-HLA antibody testing data: A practical guide for physicians. Transplantation 100: 16191628, 2016 PubMed

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  • 46.

    Hidalgo LG, Campbell PM, Sis B, Einecke G, Mengel M, Chang J, et al.: De novo donor-specific antibody at the time of kidney transplant biopsy associates with microvascular pathology and late graft failure. Am J Transplant 9: 25322541, 2009 PubMed

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  • 47.

    Kim JJ, Balasubramanian R, Michaelides G, Wittenhagen P, Sebire NJ, Mamode N, et al.: The clinical spectrum of de novo donor-specific antibodies in pediatric renal transplant recipients. Am J Transplant 14: 23502358, 2014 PubMed

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  • 48.

    Tait BD, Süsal C, Gebel HM, Nickerson PW, Zachary AA, Claas FH, et al.: Consensus guidelines on the testing and clinical management issues associated with HLA and non-HLA antibodies in transplantation. Transplantation 95: 1947, 2013 PubMed

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  • 49.

    Steinbach EJ, Barletta GM, Patel HP, Hooper DK, Garro R, Harshman LA: Donor specific antibody surveillance among pediatric kidney transplant programs: A report from the improving renal outcome collaborative. Pediatr Transplant 27: e14498, 2023 PubMed

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  • 50.

    Schinstock CA, Mannon RB, Budde K, Chong AS, Haas M, Knechtle S, et al.: Recommended treatment for antibody-mediated rejection after kidney transplantation: The 2019 expert consensus from the Transplantation Society Working Group. Transplantation 104: 911922, 2020 PubMed

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  • 51.

    Zarkhin V, Li L, Kambham N, Sigdel T, Salvatierra O, Sarwal MM: A randomized, prospective trial of rituximab for acute rejection in pediatric renal transplantation. Am J Transplant 8: 26072617, 2008 PubMed

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  • 52.

    Román-Ortiz E, Mendizabal S: Eculizumab in antibody-mediated rejection of paediatric renal transplantation. Nephrol Dial Transplant 30[suppl_3]: iii671iii672, 2015

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  • 53.

    Pearl M, Weng PL, Chen L, Dokras A, Pizzo H, Garrison J, et al.: Long term tolerability and clinical outcomes associated with tocilizumab in the treatment of refractory antibody mediated rejection (AMR) in pediatric renal transplant recipients. Clin Transplant 36: e14734, 2022 PubMed

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  • 54.

    Hirsch HH, Randhawa PS; AST Infectious Diseases Community of Practice: BK polyomavirus in solid organ transplantation—Guidelines from the American Society of Transplantation Infectious Diseases Community of Practice. Clin Transplant 33: e13528, 2019 PubMed

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  • 55.

    Höcker B, Schneble L, Murer L, Carraro A, Pape L, Kranz B, et al.: Epidemiology of and risk factors for BK polyomavirus replication and nephropathy in pediatric renal transplant recipients: An international CERTAIN Registry study. Transplantation 103: 12241233, 2019 PubMed

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  • 56.

    Schoephoerster J, Jensen C, Jackson S, Plautz E, Balani S, Kouri A, et al.: BK DNAemia in pediatric kidney transplant recipients: Predictors and outcomes. Pediatr Transplant 27: e14372, 2023 PubMed

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  • 57.

    Schneidewind L, Neumann T, Dräger DL, Kranz J, Hakenberg OW: Leflunomide in the treatment of BK polyomavirus associated nephropathy in kidney transplanted patients - A systematic review. Transplant Rev (Orlando) 34: 100565, 2020 PubMed

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  • 58.

    Kable K, Davies CD, O’connell PJ, Chapman JR, Nankivell BJ: Clearance of BK virus nephropathy by combination antiviral therapy with intravenous immunoglobulin. Transplant Direct 3: e142, 2017 PubMed

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  • 59.

    Mohammad D, Kim DY, Baracco R, Kapur G, Jain A: Treatment of BK virus with a stepwise immunosuppression reduction and intravenous immunoglobulin in pediatric kidney transplant. Pediatr Transplant 26: e14241, 2022 PubMed

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  • 60.

    Staras SAS, Dollard SC, Radford KW, Flanders WD, Pass RF, Cannon MJ: Seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus infection in the United States, 1988–1994. Clin Infect Dis 43: 11431151, 2006 PubMed

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  • 61.

    Lanzieri TM, Kruszon-Moran D, Dollard SC: Cytomegalovirus seroprevalence among US children aged 1 to 5 years: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 2017–March 2020 pre-pandemic dataset. Clin Infect Dis 75: e1211e1212, 2022 PubMed

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  • 62.

    Liverman R, Serluco A, Nance G, George R, Rodriguez DS, Deshpande S, et al.: Incidence of cytomegalovirus DNAemia in pediatric kidney, liver, and heart transplant recipients: Efficacy and risk factors associated with failure of weight-based dosed valganciclovir prophylaxis. Pediatr Transplant 27: e14493, 2023 PubMed

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  • 63.

    Razonable RR, Humar A: Cytomegalovirus in solid organ transplant recipients-Guidelines of the American Society of Transplantation Infectious Diseases Community of Practice. Clin Transplant 33: e13512, 2019 PubMed

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  • 64.

    Balani SS, Sadiq S, Jensen CJ, Kizilbash SJ: Prevention and management of CMV infection in pediatric solid organ transplant recipients. Front Pediatr 11: 1098434, 2023 PubMed

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  • 65.

    Smith JM, Dharnidharka VR: Viral surveillance and subclinical viral infection in pediatric kidney transplantation. Pediatr Nephrol 30: 741748, 2015 PubMed

  • 66.

    Allen UD, Preiksaitis JK; AST Infectious Diseases Community of Practice: Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders, Epstein-Barr virus infection, and disease in solid organ transplantation: Guidelines from the American Society of Transplantation Infectious Diseases Community of Practice. Clin Transplant 33: e13652, 2019 PubMed

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  • 67.

    Puliyanda DP, Jordan SC, Kim IK, Patel M, Murthy A, Huang E, et al.: Use of Rituximab for persistent EBV DNAemia, and its effect on donor-specific antibody development in pediatric renal transplant recipients: A case series. Pediatr Transplant 25: e14113, 2021 PubMed

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  • 68.

    Ashoor IF, Dharnidharka VR: Non-immunologic allograft loss in pediatric kidney transplant recipients. Pediatr Nephrol 34: 211222, 2019 PubMed

  • 69.

    Fulchiero R, Amaral S: Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease after pediatric kidney transplant. Front Pediatr 10: 1087864, 2022 PubMed

  • 70.

    Serrano OK, Bangdiwala AS, Vock DM, Chinnakotla S, Dunn TB, Finger EB, et al.: Incidence and magnitude of post-transplant cardiovascular disease after pediatric kidney transplantation: Risk factor analysis of 1058 pediatric kidney transplants at the University of Minnesota. Pediatr Transplant 22: e13283, 2018 PubMed

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  • 71.

    Zangla E, Mahajan R, Jiang Z, Kizilbash SJ: Lipid abnormalities in pediatric kidney transplant recipients on steroid withdrawal maintenance immunosuppression. Pediatr Nephrol 39: 261268, 2024 PubMed

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  • 72.

    Foster BJ, Dahhou M, Zhang X, Platt RW, Hanley JA: Change in mortality risk over time in young kidney transplant recipients. Am J Transplant 11: 24322442, 2011 PubMed

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  • 73.

    Francis A, Johnson DW, Melk A, Foster BJ, Blazek K, Craig JC, et al.: Survival after kidney transplantation during childhood and adolescence. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 15: 392400, 2020 PubMed

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  • 74.

    Chinnakotla S, Verghese P, Chavers B, Rheault MN, Kirchner V, Dunn T, et al.; MNUM Pediatric Transplant Program: Outcomes and risk factors for graft loss: Lessons learned from 1,056 pediatric kidney transplants at the University of Minnesota. J Am Coll Surg 224: 473486, 2017 PubMed

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  • 75.

    Patzer RE, Sayed BA, Kutner N, McClellan WM, Amaral S: Racial and ethnic differences in pediatric access to preemptive kidney transplantation in the United States. Am J Transplant 13: 17691781, 2013 PubMed

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  • 76.

    Patzer RE, Mohan S, Kutner N, McClellan WM, Amaral S: Racial and ethnic disparities in pediatric renal allograft survival in the United States. Kidney Int 87: 584592, 2015 PubMed

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  • 77.

    Amaral S, Patzer R: Disparities, race/ethnicity and access to pediatric kidney transplantation. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens 22: 336343, 2013 PubMed

  • 78.

    Willem L, Knops N, Mekahli D, Cochat P, Edefonti A, Verrina E, et al.: Renal replacement therapy in children with severe developmental disability: Guiding questions for decision-making. Eur J Pediatr 177: 17351743, 2018 PubMed

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  • 79.

    Wightman A, Young B, Bradford M, Dick A, Healey P, McDonald R, et al.: Prevalence and outcomes of renal transplantation in children with intellectual disability. Pediatr Transplant 18: 714719, 2014 PubMed

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