In-Center Hemodialysis
By:
Osama El Shamy Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee

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  • 1.

    United States Renal Data System: Annual data report. Available at: https://usrds-adr.niddk.nih.gov/2022?dkrd=/about-niddk/strategic-plans-reports/usrds/annual-data-report. Accessed November 20, 2022

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  • 2.

    Ronco C, Clark WR: Haemodialysis membranes. Nat Rev Nephrol 14: 394410, 2018 PubMed

  • 3.

    National Kidney Foundation: A clinical update on dialyzer membranes. Available at: https://www.kidney.org/sites/default/files/02-10-6050_FBD_Clinical_bulletin.pdf. Accessed November 20, 2022

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  • 4.

    Davenport A: New dialysis technology and biocompatible materials. Contrib Nephrol 189: 130136, 2017 PubMed

  • 5.

    Gura V, Davenport A, Beizai M, Ezon C, Ronco C: Beta2-microglobulin and phosphate clearances using a wearable artificial kidney: a pilot study. Am J Kidney Dis 54: 104111, 2009 PubMed

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  • 6.

    Ronco C, Neri M, Lorenzin A, Garzotto F, Clark WR: Multidimensional classification of dialysis membranes. Contrib Nephrol 191: 115126, 2017 PubMed

  • 7.

    Sandeman SR, Howell CA, Phillips GJ, Zheng Y, Standen G, Pletzenauer R, et al: An adsorbent monolith device to augment the removal of uraemic toxins during haemodialysis. J Mater Sci Mater Med 25: 15891597, 2014 PubMed

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  • 8.

    Canaud B: Recent advances in dialysis membranes. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens 30: 613622, 2021 10.1097/MNH.0000000000000744 PubMed

  • 9.

    He Y, Shiu YT, Pike DB, Roy-Chaudhury P, Cheung AK, Berceli SA: Comparison of hemodialysis arteriovenous fistula blood flow rates measured by Doppler ultrasound and phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging. J Vasc Surg 68: 18481857.e2, 2018 PubMed

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  • 10.

    Konner K, Nonnast-Daniel B, Ritz E: The arteriovenous fistula. J Am Soc Nephrol 14: 16691680, 2003 PubMed

  • 11.

    National Kidney Foundation. KDOQI clinical practice guidelines and clinical practice recommendations for 2006 updates: Hemodialysis adequacy, peritoneal dialysis adequacy and vascular access. Available at: https://www.kidney.org/sites/default/files/docs/12-50-0210_jag_dcp_guidelines-hd_oct06_sectiona_ofc.pdf. Accessed November 12, 2022

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  • 12.

    Moist LM, Hemmelgarn BR, Lok CE: Relationship between blood flow in central venous catheters and hemodialysis adequacy. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 1: 965971, 2006 PubMed

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  • 13.

    Chang KY, Kim SH, Kim YO, Jin DC, Song HC, Choi EJ, et al: The impact of blood flow rate during hemodialysis on all-cause mortality. Korean J Intern Med (Korean Assoc Intern Med) 31: 11311139, 2016 PubMed

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  • 14.

    Sombolos K, Natse T, Zoumbaridis N, Mavromatidis K, Karagianni A, Fitili C: Efficacy of dual lumen jugular venous catheter hemodialysis when venous lumen is used as arterial lumen. Nephron 65: 147149, 1993 10.1159/000187457 PubMed

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  • 15.

    Senécal L, Saint-Sauveur E, Leblanc M: Blood flow and recirculation rates in tunneled hemodialysis catheters. ASAIO J 50: 9497, 2004 10.1097/01.mat.0000104825.33101.7c PubMed

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  • 16.

    Kousoula V, Georgianos PI, Mavromatidis K, Syrganis C, Thodis E, Panagoutsos S, et al: Reversed connection of cuffed, tunneled, dual-lumen catheters with increased blood flow rate maintains the adequacy of delivered dialysis despite the higher access recirculation. Int Urol Nephrol 51: 18411847, 2019 10.1007/s11255-019-02268-1 PubMed

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  • 17.

    Ouseph R, Ward RA: Increasing dialysate flow rate increases dialyzer urea mass transfer-area coefficients during clinical use. Am J Kidney Dis 37: 316320, 2001 PubMed

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  • 18.

    Leypoldt JK, Cheung AK, Agodoa LY, Daugirdas JT, Greene T, Keshaviah PR: Hemodialyzer mass transfer-area coefficients for urea increase at high dialysate flow rates. The Hemodialysis (HEMO) Study. Kidney Int 51: 20132017, 1997 PubMed

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  • 19.

    Ronco C, Brendolan A, Crepaldi C, Rodighiero M, Scabardi M: Blood and dialysate flow distributions in hollow-fiber hemodialyzers analyzed by computerized helical scanning technique. J Am Soc Nephrol 13[Suppl 1]: S53S61, 2002 PubMed

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  • 20.

    Ward RA, Idoux JW, Hamdan H, Ouseph R, Depner TA, Golper TA: Dialysate flow rate and delivered Kt/Vurea for dialyzers with enhanced dialysate flow distribution. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 6: 22352239, 2011 PubMed

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  • 21.

    Gauly A, Parisotto MT, Skinder A, Schoder V, Furlan A, Schuh E, et al: Vascular access cannulation in hemodialysis patients—a survey of current practice and its relation to dialysis dose. J Vasc Access 12: 358364, 2011 PubMed

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  • 22.

    Schmidli J, Widmer MK, Basile C, de Donato G, Gallieni M, Gibbons CP, et al.; ESVS Guidelines Committee: Editor’s choice - vascular access: 2018 clinical practice guidelines of the European Society for Vas-cular Surgery (ESVS). Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 55: 757818, 2018

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  • 23.

    National Kidney Foundation: Clinical Update. Needles and cannulas for arteriovenous fistula access: more options promote better outcomes. 2016. Available at: https://www.kidney.org/sites/default/files/Fistula%20Bulle-tin_0.pdf Accessed November 22, 2022

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  • 24.

    Parisotto MT, Pelliccia F, Grassmann A, Marcelli D: Elements of dialysis nursing practice associated with successful cannulation: result of an international survey. J Vasc Access 18: 114119, 2017 PubMed

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  • 25.

    Vanholder R: Single needle hemodialysis: Is the past the future? J Nephrol 33: 4958, 2020 PubMed

  • 26.

    Shibata S, Uchida S: Hyperkalemia in patients undergoing hemodialysis: Its pathophysiology and management. Ther Apher Dial 26: 314, 2022 10.1111/1744-9987.13721 PubMed

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  • 27.

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    Sandle GI, Hunter M: Apical potassium (BK) channels and enhanced potassium secretion in human colon. QJM 103: 8589, 2010 10.1093/qjmed/hcp159 PubMed

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    Butkus DE, Alfrey AC, Miller NL: Tissue potassium in chronic dialysis patients. Nephron 13: 314324, 1974 10.1159/000180407 PubMed

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    Ferrey A, You AS, Kovesdy CP, Nakata T, Veliz M, Nguyen DV, et al: Dialysate potassium and mortality in a prospective hemodialysis cohort. Am J Nephrol 47: 415423, 2018 PubMed

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  • 34.

    Brunelli SM, Spiegel DM, Du Mond C, Oestreicher N, Winkelmayer WC, Kovesdy CP: Serum-to-dialysate potassium gradient and its association with short-term outcomes in hemodialysis patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant 33: 12071214, 2018 PubMed

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  • 35.

    Pun PH, Lehrich RW, Honeycutt EF, Herzog CA, Middleton JP: Modifiable risk factors associated with sudden cardiac arrest within hemodialysis clinics. Kidney Int 79: 218227, 2011 PubMed

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  • 36.

    Kovesdy CP, Regidor DL, Mehrotra R, Jing J, McAllister CJ, Greenland S, et al: Serum and dialysate potassium concentrations and survival in hemodialysis patients. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2: 9991007, 2007 PubMed

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  • 37.

    Karaboyas A, Zee J, Brunelli SM, Usvyat LA, Weiner DE, Maddux FW, et al: Dialysate potassium, serum potassium, mortality, and arrhythmia events in hemodialysis: Results from the dialysis outcomes and practice patterns study (DOPPS). Am J Kidney Dis 69: 266277, 2017 PubMed

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  • 38.

    Flythe JE, Mc Causland FR: Dialysate sodium: Rationale for evolution over time. Semin Dial 30: 99111, 2017 PubMed

  • 39.

    Dunlop JL, Vandal AC, Marshall MR: Low dialysate sodium levels for chronic haemodialysis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 1: CD011204, 2019 PubMed

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    Rhee CM, Ravel VA, Ayus JC, Sim JJ, Streja E, Mehrotra R, et al: Pre-dialysis serum sodium and mortality in a national incident hemodialysis cohort. Nephrol Dial Transplant 31: 9921001, 2016 10.1093/ndt/gfv341 PubMed

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  • 41.

    Stragier A, Lopot F, Švára F, Polakovič V: Fallacies and pitfalls of dialysis sodium prescription and control. Blood Purif 46: 2733, 2018 PubMed

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    Mc Causland FR, Brunelli SM, Waikar SS: Dialysate sodium, serum sodium and mortality in maintenance hemodialysis. Nephrol Dial Transplant 27: 16131618, 2012 PubMed

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  • 44.

    Rhee CM, Ayus JC, Kalantar-Zadeh K: Hyponatremia in the dialysis population. Kidney Int Rep 4: 769780, 2019 PubMed

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    Hecking M, Karaboyas A, Saran R, Sen A, Hörl WH, Pisoni RL, et al: Predialysis serum sodium level, dialysate sodium, and mortality in maintenance hemodialysis patients: The Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS). Am J Kidney Dis 59: 238248, 2012 PubMed

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  • 46.

    Chauhan K, Pattharanitima P, Patel N, Duffy A, Saha A, Chaudhary K, et al: Rate of correction of hypernatremia and health outcomes in critically ill patients. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 14: 656663, 2019 PubMed

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  • 47.

    Nur S, Khan Y, Nur S, Boroujerdi H: Hypernatremia: Correction rate and hemodialysis. Case Rep Med 2014: 736073, 2014 PubMed

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    van der Sande FM, Ter Meulen KJA, Kotanko P, Kooman JP: Dialysate calcium levels: Do they matter? Blood Purif 47: 230235, 2019 PubMed

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    National Kidney Foundation: K/DOQI clinical practice guidelines for bone metabolism and disease in chronic kidney disease. Am J Kidney Dis 42[Suppl 3]: S1S201, 2003 PubMed

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  • 50.

    : Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes CKD-MBD Work Group. KDIGO clinical practice guideline for the diagnosis, evaluation, prevention, and treatment of chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD). Kidney Int Suppl 76[suppl 113]: S1S130, 2009

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  • 51.

    Wang Z, Jiang A, Wei F, Chen H: Cardiac valve calcification and risk of cardiovascular or all-cause mortality in dialysis patients: A meta-analysis. BMC Cardiovasc Disord 18: 12, 2018 PubMed

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    Pun PH, Horton JR, Middleton JP: Dialysate calcium concentration and the risk of sudden cardiac arrest in hemodialysis patients. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 8: 797803, 2013 PubMed

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  • 54.

    Sakoh T, Taniguchi M, Yamada S, Ohnaka S, Arase H, Tokumoto M, et al: Short- and long-term effects of dialysate calcium concentrations on mineral and bone metabolism in hemodialysis patients: The K4 study. Kidney Med 1: 296306, 2019 PubMed

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    Garimella PS, Malhotra R: Dialysate calcium: A lot more than “set it and forget it.” Kidney Med 1: 238241, 2019 PubMed

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    Law MM, Smith JD, Schneider HG, Wilson S: Misclassification of calcium status in end-stage kidney disease using albumin-adjusted calcium levels. Nephrology (Carlton) 26: 725732, 2021 10.1111/nep.13910 PubMed

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    Sheridan K, Logomarsino JV: Effects of serum phosphorus on vascular calcification in a healthy, adult population: A systematic review. J Vasc Nurs 35: 157169, 2017 PubMed

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    Cozzolino M, Ciceri P, Galassi A, Mangano M, Carugo S, Capelli I, et al: The key role of phosphate on vascular calcification. Toxins (Basel) 11: 213, 2019 PubMed

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  • 61.

    Fang YW, Leu JG, Tsai MH, Liou HH: Higher intra-dialysis serum phosphorus reduction ratio as a predictor of mortality in patients on long-term hemodialysis. Med Sci Monit 25: 691699, 2019 PubMed

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  • 62.

    Yang KH, Cho S, Kim SR, Lee YJ: Serum phosphorus levels are associated with intradialytic hypotension in hemodialysis patients. Nephron 145: 238244, 2021 10.1159/000513525 PubMed

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  • 63.

    Stevens KK, Denby L, Patel RK, Mark PB, Kettlewell S, Smith GL, et al: Deleterious effects of phosphate on vascular and endothelial function via disruption to the nitric oxide pathway. Nephrol Dial Transplant 32: 16171627, 2017 10.1093/ndt/gfw252 PubMed

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  • 64.

    Apetrii M, Covic A, Massy ZA: Magnesium supplementation: A consideration in dialysis patients. Semin Dial 31: 1114, 2018 PubMed

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    Ochi A, Ishimura E, Tsujimoto Y, Kakiya R, Tabata T, Mori K, et al: Hair magnesium, but not serum magnesium, is associated with left ventricular wall thickness in hemodialysis patients. Circ J 77: 30293036, 2013 PubMed

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  • 66.

    Sakaguchi Y, Fujii N, Shoji T, Hayashi T, Rakugi H, Isaka Y: Hypomagnesemia is a significant predictor of cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular mortality in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Kidney Int 85: 174181, 2014 PubMed

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  • 67.

    Ter Braake AD, Shanahan CM, de Baaij JHF: Magnesium counteracts vascular calcification: Passive interference or active modulation? Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 37: 14311445, 2017 PubMed

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  • 69.

    Mizuiri S, Nishizawa Y, Yamashita K, Ono K, Usui K, Arita M, et al: Relationship of serum magnesium level with body composition and survival in hemodialysis patients. Hemodial Int 24: 99107, 2020 PubMed

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    Dekker MJE, Konings C, Canaud B, van der Sande FM, Stuard S, Raimann JG, et al: Interactions between malnutrition, inflammation, and fluid overload and their associations with survival in prevalent hemodialysis patients. J Ren Nutr 28: 435444, 2018 PubMed

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    Bressendorff I, Hansen D, Schou M, Pasch A, Brandi L: The effect of increasing dialysate magnesium on serum calcification propensity in subjects with end stage kidney disease: A randomized, controlled clinical trial. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 13: 13731380, 2018 PubMed

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    Sakaguchi Y, Hamano T, Isaka Y: Magnesium in hemodialysis patients: A new understanding of the old problem. Contrib Nephrol 196: 5863, 2018 PubMed

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    Yu L, Song J, Lu X, Zu Y, Li H, Wang S: Association between serum magnesium and erythropoietin responsiveness in hemodialysis patients: A cross-sectional study. Kidney Blood Press Res 44: 354361, 2019 PubMed

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    Chan MR, Young HN, Becker YT, Yevzlin AS: Obesity as a predictor of vascular access outcomes: analysis of the USRDS DMMS Wave II study. Semin Dial 21: 274279, 2008 10.1111/j.1525-139X.2008.00434.x PubMed

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    Qian JZ, McAdams-DeMarco M, Ng DK, Lau B: Arteriovenous fistula placement, maturation, and patency loss in older patients initiating hemodialysis. Am J Kidney Dis 76: 480489.e1, 2020 PubMed

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    Drew DA, Lok CE, Cohen JT, Wagner M, Tangri N, Weiner DE: Vascular access choice in incident hemodialysis patients: a decision analysis. J Am Soc Nephrol 26: 183191, 2015 PubMed

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