Glomerular Disease in Patients with Acute and Chronic Infections
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Meghan E. SiseDepartment of Nephrology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts

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  • 1

    World Health Organization: HIV/AIDS. Available at: https://www.who.int/data/gho/data/themes/hiv-aids. Accessed June 14, 2022

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  • 2

    Mocroft A, Lundgren JD, Ross M, Fux CA, Reiss P, Moranne O, et al.; Data Collection on Adverse events of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) Study: Cumulative and current exposure to potentially nephrotoxic antiretrovirals and development of chronic kidney disease in HIV-positive individuals with a normal baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate: A prospective international cohort study. Lancet HIV 3: e23e32, 2016 PubMed

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  • 3

    Guaraldi G, Malagoli A, Calcagno A, Mussi C, Celesia BM, Carli F, et al.: The increasing burden and complexity of multi-morbidity and polypharmacy in geriatric HIV patients: A cross sectional study of people aged 65–74 years and more than 75 years. BMC Geriatr 18: 99, 2018 PubMed

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  • 4

    Mocroft A, Lundgren JD, Ross M, Law M, Reiss P, Kirk O, et al.; D:A:D study group; Royal Free Hospital Clinic Cohort; INSIGHT study group; SMART study group; ESPRIT study group: Development and validation of a risk score for chronic kidney disease in HIV infection using prospective cohort data from the D:A:D study. PLoS Med 12: e1001809, 2015 PubMed

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  • 5

    Swanepoel CR, Atta MG, D’Agati VD, Estrella MM, Fogo AB, Naicker S, et al.; Conference Participants: Kidney disease in the setting of HIV infection: Conclusions from a Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Controversies Conference. Kidney Int 93: 545559, 2018 PubMed

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  • 6

    Rao TK, Filippone EJ, Nicastri AD, Landesman SH, Frank E, Chen CK, et al.: Associated focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. N Engl J Med 310: 669673, 1984 PubMed

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  • 7

    Sise ME, Lo GC, Goldstein RH, Allegretti AS, Masia R: Case 12-2017 — A 34-year-old man with nephropathy. N Engl J Med 376: 15751585, 2017 PubMed

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  • 8

    Winston JA, Bruggeman LA, Ross MD, Jacobson J, Ross L, D’Agati VD, et al.: Nephropathy and establishment of a renal reservoir of HIV type 1 during primary infection. N Engl J Med 344: 19791984, 2001 PubMed

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  • 9

    Levin ML, Palella F, Shah S, Lerma E, Butter J, Kanwar YS: HIV-associated nephropathy occurring before HIV antibody seroconversion. Am J Kidney Dis 37: E39, 2001 PubMed

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  • 10

    Cohen AH, Nast CC: HIV-associated nephropathy. A unique combined glomerular, tubular, and interstitial lesion. Mod Pathol 1: 8797, 1988 PubMed

  • 11

    D’Agati V, Suh JI, Carbone L, Cheng JT, Appel G: Pathology of HIV-associated nephropathy: A detailed morphologic and comparative study. Kidney Int 35: 13581370, 1989 PubMed

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  • 12

    Bruggeman LA, Dikman S, Meng C, Quaggin SE, Coffman TM, Klotman PE: Nephropathy in human immunodeficiency virus-1 transgenic mice is due to renal transgene expression. J Clin Invest 100: 8492, 1997 PubMed

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  • 13

    Kopp JB, Nelson GW, Sampath K, Johnson RC, Genovese G, An P, et al.: APOL1 genetic variants in focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and HIV-associated nephropathy. J Am Soc Nephrol 22: 21292137, 2011 PubMed

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  • 14

    Papeta N, Kiryluk K, Patel A, Sterken R, Kacak N, Snyder HJ, et al.: APOL1 variants increase risk for FSGS and HIVAN but not IgA nephropathy. J Am Soc Nephrol 22: 19911996, 2011 PubMed

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  • 15

    Atta MG, Estrella MM, Skorecki KL, Kopp JB, Winkler CA, Wasser WG, et al.: Association of APOL1 genotype with renal histology among Black HIV-positive patients undergoing kidney biopsy. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 11: 262270, 2016 PubMed

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  • 16

    Kasembeli AN, Duarte R, Ramsay M, Mosiane P, Dickens C, Dix-Peek T, et al.: APOL1 risk variants are strongly associated with HIV-associated nephropathy in Black South Africans. J Am Soc Nephrol 26: 28822890, 2015 PubMed

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  • 17

    Fine DM, Wasser WG, Estrella MM, Atta MG, Kuperman M, Shemer R, et al.: APOL1 risk variants predict histopathology and progression to ESRD in HIV-related kidney disease. J Am Soc Nephrol 23: 343350, 2012 PubMed

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  • 18

    Estrella MM, Li M, Tin A, Abraham AG, Shlipak MG, Penugonda S, et al.: The association between APOL1 risk alleles and longitudinal kidney function differs by HIV viral suppression status. Clin Infect Dis 60: 646652, 2015 PubMed

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  • 19

    Atta MG, Estrella MM, Kuperman M, Foy MC, Fine DM, Racusen LC, et al.: HIV-associated nephropathy patients with and without apolipoprotein L1 gene variants have similar clinical and pathological characteristics. Kidney Int 82: 338343, 2012 PubMed

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  • 20

    Kudose S, Santoriello D, Bomback AS, Stokes MB, Batal I, Markowitz GS, et al.: The spectrum of kidney biopsy findings in HIV-infected patients in the modern era. Kidney Int 97: 10061016, 2020 PubMed

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  • 21

    Lucas GM, Ross MJ, Stock PG, Shlipak MG, Wyatt CM, Gupta SK, et al.; HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America: Clinical practice guideline for the management of chronic kidney disease in patients infected with HIV: 2014 update by the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis 59: e96e138, 2014 PubMed

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  • 22

    Atta MG, Gallant JE, Rahman MH, Nagajothi N, Racusen LC, Scheel PJ, et al.: Antiretroviral therapy in the treatment of HIV-associated nephropathy. Nephrol Dial Transplant 21: 28092813, 2006 PubMed

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  • 23

    Herlitz LC, Mohan S, Stokes MB, Radhakrishnan J, D’Agati VD, Markowitz GS: Tenofovir nephrotoxicity: Acute tubular necrosis with distinctive clinical, pathological, and mitochondrial abnormalities. Kidney Int 78: 11711177, 2010 PubMed

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  • 24

    Gupta SK, Post FA, Arribas JR, Eron JJ Jr, Wohl DA, Clarke AE, et al.: Renal safety of tenofovir alafenamide vs. tenofovir disoproxil fumarate: A pooled analysis of 26 clinical trials. AIDS 33: 14551465, 2019 PubMed

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  • 25

    Burns GC, Paul SK, Toth IR, Sivak SL: Effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition in HIV-associated nephropathy. J Am Soc Nephrol 8: 11401146, 1997 PubMed

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  • 26

    Post FA, Campbell LJ, Hamzah L, Collins L, Jones R, Siwani R, et al.: Predictors of renal outcome in HIV-associated nephropathy. Clin Infect Dis 46: 12821289, 2008 PubMed

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  • 27

    Bigé N, Lanternier F, Viard JP, Kamgang P, Daugas E, Elie C, et al.: Presentation of HIV-associated nephropathy and outcome in HAART-treated patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant 27: 11141121, 2012 PubMed

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  • 28

    Razzak Chaudhary S, Workeneh BT, Montez-Rath ME, Zolopa AR, Klotman PE, Winkelmayer WC: Trends in the outcomes of end-stage renal disease secondary to human immunodeficiency virus-associated nephropathy. Nephrol Dial Transplant 30: 17341740, 2015 PubMed

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  • 29

    Boyle SM, Lee DH, Wyatt CM: HIV in the dialysis population: Current issues and future directions. Semin Dial 30: 430437, 2017 PubMed

  • 30

    Sawinski D, Forde KA, Locke JE, Cohen JB, Weldon J, Shults J, et al.: Race but not hepatitis C co-infection affects survival of HIV+ individuals on dialysis in contemporary practice. Kidney Int 93: 706715, 2018 PubMed

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  • 31

    Stock PG, Barin B, Murphy B, Hanto D, Diego JM, Light J, et al.: Outcomes of kidney transplantation in HIV-infected recipients. N Engl J Med 363: 20042014, 2010 PubMed

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  • 32

    Locke JE, Mehta S, Reed RD, MacLennan P, Massie A, Nellore A, et al.: A national study of outcomes among HIV-infected kidney transplant recipients. J Am Soc Nephrol 26: 22222229, 2015 PubMed

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  • 33

    Waheed S, Sakr A, Chheda ND, Lucas GM, Estrella M, Fine DM, et al.: Outcomes of renal transplantation in HIV-1 associated nephropathy. PLoS One 10: e0129702, 2015 PubMed

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  • 34

    Locke JE, Gustafson S, Mehta S, Reed RD, Shelton B, MacLennan PA, et al.: Survival benefit of kidney transplantation in HIV-infected patients. Ann Surg 265: 604608, 2017 PubMed

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  • 35

    Muller E, Barday Z, Mendelson M, Kahn D: HIV-positive-to-HIV-positive kidney transplantation--results at 3 to 5 years. N Engl J Med 372: 613620, 2015 PubMed

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  • 36

    Nikolopoulou A, Teixeira C, Cook HT, Roufosse C, Cairns THD, Levy JB, et al.: Membranous nephropathy associated with viral infection. Clin Kidney J 14: 876883, 2020 PubMed

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  • 37

    Charu V, Andeen N, Walavalkar V, Lapasia J, Kim JY, Lin A, et al.: Membranous nephropathy in patients with HIV: A report of 11 cases. BMC Nephrol 21: 401, 2020 PubMed

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  • 38

    Haas M, Kaul S, Eustace JA: HIV-associated immune complex glomerulonephritis with “lupus-like” features: A clinicopathologic study of 14 cases. Kidney Int 67: 13811390, 2005 PubMed

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  • 39

    Foy MC, Estrella MM, Lucas GM, Tahir F, Fine DM, Moore RD, et al.: Comparison of risk factors and outcomes in HIV immune complex kidney disease and HIV-associated nephropathy. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 8: 15241532, 2013 PubMed

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  • 40

    World Health Organization: Hepatitis C. Available at: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/hepatitis-c#:∼:text=Globally%2C%20an%20estimated%2058%20million,carcinoma%20(primary%20liver%20cancer.). Accessed June 14, 2022

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  • 41

    Ferri C, Zignego AL, Pileri SA: Cryoglobulins. J Clin Pathol 55: 413, 2002 PubMed

  • 42

    Cicardi M, Cesana B, Del Ninno E, Pappalardo E, Silini E, Agostoni A, et al.: Prevalence and risk factors for the presence of serum cryoglobulins in patients with chronic hepatitis C. J Viral Hepat 7: 138143, 2000 PubMed

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  • 43

    Rutledge SM, Chung RT, Sise ME: Treatment of hepatitis C virus infection in patients with mixed cryoglobulinemic syndrome and cryoglobulinemic glomerulonephritis. Hemodial Int 22[Suppl 1]: S81S96, 2018 PubMed

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  • 44

    D’Amico G, Colasanti G, Ferrario F, Sinico RA: Renal involvement in essential mixed cryoglobulinemia. Kidney Int 35: 10041014, 1989 PubMed

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  • 45

    Trejo O, Ramos-Casals M, García-Carrasco M, Yagüe J, Jiménez S, de la Red G, et al.: Cryoglobulinemia: Study of etiologic factors and clinical and immunologic features in 443 patients from a single center. Medicine (Baltimore) 80: 252262, 2001 PubMed

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  • 46

    Pouteil-Noble C, Maiza H, Dijoud F, MacGregor B: Glomerular disease associated with hepatitis C virus infection in native kidneys. Nephrol Dial Transplant 15[Suppl 8]: 2833, 2000 PubMed

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  • 47

    Sinico RA, Winearls CG, Sabadini E, Fornasieri A, Castiglione A, D’Amico G: Identification of glomerular immune deposits in cryoglobulinemia glomerulonephritis. Kidney Int 34: 109116, 1988 PubMed

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  • 48

    D’Amico G: Renal involvement in hepatitis C infection: Cryoglobulinemic glomerulonephritis. Kidney Int 54: 650671, 1998 PubMed

  • 49

    Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes CKD-MBD Update Work Group: KDIGO 2017 clinical practice guideline update for the diagnosis, evaluation, prevention, and treatment of chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD). Kidney Int Suppl (2011) 7: 159, 2017.

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  • 50

    Saadoun D, Pol S, Ferfar Y, Alric L, Hezode C, Si Ahmed SN, et al.: Efficacy and safety of sofosbuvir plus daclatasvir for treatment of HCV-associated cryoglobulinemia vasculitis. Gastroenterology 153: 4952.e5, 2017 PubMed

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  • 51

    Emery JS, Kuczynski M, La D, Almarzooqi S, Kowgier M, Shah H, et al.: Efficacy and safety of direct acting antivirals for the treatment of mixed cryoglobulinemia. Am J Gastroenterol 112: 12981308, 2017 PubMed

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  • 52

    Bonacci M, Lens S, Mariño Z, Londoño MC, Rodriguez-Tajes S, Sánchez-Tapias JM, et al.: Long-term outcomes of patients with HCV-associated cryoglobulinemic vasculitis after virologic cure. Gastroenterology 155: 311315.e6, 2018 PubMed

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  • 53

    Gragnani L, Piluso A, Urraro T, Fabbrizzi A, Fognani E, Petraccia L, et al.: Virological and clinical response to interferon-free regimens in patients with HCV-related mixed cryoglobulinemia: Preliminary results of a prospective pilot study. Curr Drug Targets 18: 772785, 2017 PubMed

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  • 54

    Jadoul M, Berenguer MC, Doss W, Fabrizi F, Izopet J, Jha V, et al.: Executive summary of the 2018 KDIGO hepatitis C in CKD guideline: Welcoming advances in evaluation and management. Kidney Int 94: 663673, 2018 PubMed

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  • 55

    Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO): KDIGO clinical practice guidelines for the prevention, diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of hepatitis C in chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int Suppl (109): S1S99, 2008 PubMed

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  • 56

    Johnson RJ, Gretch DR, Yamabe H, Hart J, Bacchi CE, Hartwell P, et al.: Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis associated with hepatitis C virus infection. N Engl J Med 328: 465470, 1993 PubMed

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  • 57

    Misiani R, Bellavita P, Fenili D, Vicari O, Marchesi D, Sironi PL, et al.: Interferon alfa-2a therapy in cryoglobulinemia associated with hepatitis C virus. N Engl J Med 330: 751756, 1994 PubMed

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  • 58

    Casato M, Agnello V, Pucillo LP, Knight GB, Leoni M, Del Vecchio S, et al.: Predictors of long-term response to high-dose interferon therapy in type II cryoglobulinemia associated with hepatitis C virus infection. Blood 90: 38653873, 1997 PubMed

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  • 59

    Mazzaro C, Zorat F, Caizzi M, Donada C, Di Gennaro G, Maso LD, et al.: Treatment with peg-interferon alfa-2b and ribavirin of hepatitis C virus-associated mixed cryoglobulinemia: A pilot study. J Hepatol 42: 632638, 2005 PubMed

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  • 60

    Hadziyannis SJ, Sette H Jr, Morgan TR, Balan V, Diago M, Marcellin P, et al.; PEGASYS International Study Group: Peginterferon-alpha2a and ribavirin combination therapy in chronic hepatitis C: A randomized study of treatment duration and ribavirin dose. Ann Intern Med 140: 346355, 2004 PubMed

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  • 61

    Cacoub P, Lidove O, Maisonobe T, Duhaut P, Thibault V, Ghillani P, et al.: Interferon-alpha and ribavirin treatment in patients with hepatitis C virus-related systemic vasculitis. Arthritis Rheum 46: 33173326, 2002 PubMed

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  • 62

    Dammacco F, Tucci FA, Lauletta G, Gatti P, De Re V, Conteduca V, et al.: Pegylated interferon-alpha, ribavirin, and rituximab combined therapy of hepatitis C virus-related mixed cryoglobulinemia: A long-term study. Blood 116: 343353, 2010 PubMed

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  • 63

    Quartuccio L, Soardo G, Romano G, Zaja F, Scott CA, De Marchi G, et al.: Rituximab treatment for glomerulonephritis in HCV-associated mixed cryoglobulinaemia: Efficacy and safety in the absence of steroids. Rheumatology (Oxford) 45: 842846, 2006 PubMed

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  • 64

    Roccatello D, Baldovino S, Rossi D, Mansouri M, Naretto C, Gennaro M, et al.: Long-term effects of anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody treatment of cryoglobulinaemic glomerulonephritis. Nephrol Dial Transplant 19: 30543061, 2004 PubMed

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  • 65

    Zaja F, Vianelli N, Sperotto A, Patriarca F, Tani M, Marin L, et al.: Anti-CD20 therapy for chronic lymphocytic leukemia-associated autoimmune diseases. Leuk Lymphoma 44: 19511955, 2003 PubMed

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  • 66

    Sansonno D, De Re V, Lauletta G, Tucci FA, Boiocchi M, Dammacco F: Monoclonal antibody treatment of mixed cryoglobulinemia resistant to interferon alpha with an anti-CD20. Blood 101: 38183826, 2003 PubMed

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  • 67

    Saadoun D, Resche-Rigon M, Sene D, Perard L, Karras A, Cacoub P: Rituximab combined with Peg-interferon-ribavirin in refractory hepatitis C virus-associated cryoglobulinaemia vasculitis. Ann Rheum Dis 67: 14311436, 2008 PubMed

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  • 68

    Cacoub P, Delluc A, Saadoun D, Landau DA, Sene D: Anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (rituximab) treatment for cryoglobulinemic vasculitis: Where do we stand? Ann Rheum Dis 67: 283287, 2008 PubMed

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  • 69

    Saadoun D, Resche Rigon M, Sene D, Terrier B, Karras A, Perard L, et al.: Rituximab plus Peg-interferon-alpha/ribavirin compared with Peg-interferon-alpha/ribavirin in hepatitis C-related mixed cryoglobulinemia. Blood 116: 326334, quiz 504–505, 2010 PubMed

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  • 70

    De Vita S, Quartuccio L, Isola M, Mazzaro C, Scaini P, Lenzi M, et al.: A randomized controlled trial of rituximab for the treatment of severe cryoglobulinemic vasculitis. Arthritis Rheum 64: 843853, 2012 PubMed

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  • 71

    Sneller MC, Hu Z, Langford CA: A randomized controlled trial of rituximab following failure of antiviral therapy for hepatitis C virus-associated cryoglobulinemic vasculitis. Arthritis Rheum 64: 835842, 2012 PubMed

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  • 72

    Saadoun D, Thibault V, Si Ahmed SN, Alric L, Mallet M, Guillaud C, et al.: Sofosbuvir plus ribavirin for hepatitis C virus-associated cryoglobulinaemia vasculitis: VASCUVALDIC study. Ann Rheum Dis 75: 17771782, 2016 PubMed

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  • 73

    Comarmond C, Garrido M, Pol S, Desbois AC, Costopoulos M, Le Garff-Tavernier M, et al.: Direct-acting antiviral therapy restores immune tolerance to patients with hepatitis C virus-induced cryoglobulinemia vasculitis. Gastroenterology 152: 20522062.e2, 2017 PubMed

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  • 74

    Gragnani L, Visentini M, Fognani E, Urraro T, De Santis A, Petraccia L, et al.: Prospective study of guideline-tailored therapy with direct-acting antivirals for hepatitis C virus-associated mixed cryoglobulinemia. Hepatology 64: 14731482, 2016 PubMed

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  • 75

    Sise ME, Bloom AK, Wisocky J, Lin MV, Gustafson JL, Lundquist AL, et al.: Treatment of hepatitis C virus-associated mixed cryoglobulinemia with direct-acting antiviral agents. Hepatology 63: 408417, 2016 PubMed

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  • 76

    Sollima S, Milazzo L, Peri AM, Torre A, Antinori S, Galli M: Persistent mixed cryoglobulinaemia vasculitis despite hepatitis C virus eradication after interferon-free antiviral therapy. Rheumatology (Oxford) 55: 20842085, 2016 PubMed

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  • 77

    Mauro E, Quartuccio L, Ghersetti M, Lenzi M, Gitto S, Andreone P, et al.: Direct acting antiviral (DAA) therapy of HCV, effects on the cryoglobulinemic vasculitis: A multi center open label study. Dig Liver Dis 49: e32, 2017

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  • 78

    Cerretelli G, Gragnani L, Monti M, Arena U, Fognani E, Petraccia L, et al.: Sofosbuvir/ribavirin treatment in patients with genotype 2, hepatitis C virus infection and symptomatic mixed cryoglobulinemia: An interim analysis on safety, efficacy and impact on quality of life. J Hepatol 66: S505, 2017

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  • 79

    Miailhes P, Hartig-Lavie K, Virlogeux V, et al.: Benefit of direct-acting antiviral therapy for hepatitis C virus (HCV) in monoinfected and HIV-HCV-coinfected patients with mixed cryoglobulinaemia. Clin Microbiol Infect 24: 1215.e11215.e4, 2018 10.1016/j.cmi.2018.05.019

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  • 80

    Bonacci M, Lens S, Londoño MC, Mariño Z, Cid MC, Ramos-Casals M, et al.: Virologic, clinical, and immune response outcomes of patients with hepatitis C virus-associated cryoglobulinemia treated with direct-acting antivirals. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 15: 575583.e1, 2017 PubMed

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  • 81

    Comarmond C, Cacoub P, Saadoun D: Treatment of chronic hepatitis C-associated cryoglobulinemia vasculitis at the era of direct-acting antivirals. Therap Adv Gastroenterol 13: 1756284820942617, 2020 PubMed

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  • 82

    Roth D, Nelson DR, Bruchfeld A, Liapakis A, Silva M, Monsour H Jr, et al.: Grazoprevir plus elbasvir in treatment-naive and treatment-experienced patients with hepatitis C virus genotype 1 infection and stage 4-5 chronic kidney disease (the C-SURFER study): A combination phase 3 study. Lancet 386: 15371545, 2015 PubMed

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  • 83

    Gane E, Lawitz E, Pugatch D, Papatheodoridis G, Bräu N, Brown A, et al.: Glecaprevir and pibrentasvir in patients with HCV and severe renal impairment. N Engl J Med 377: 14481455, 2017 PubMed

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  • 84

    Lawitz E, Flisiak R, Abunimeh M, Sise ME, Park JY, Kaskas M, et al.: Efficacy and safety of glecaprevir/pibrentasvir in renally impaired patients with chronic HCV infection. Liver Int 40: 10321041, 2020 PubMed

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  • 85

    Borgia SM, Dearden J, Yoshida EM, Shafran SD, Brown A, Ben-Ari Z, et al.: Sofosbuvir/velpatasvir for 12 weeks in hepatitis C virus-infected patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing dialysis. J Hepatol 71: 660665, 2019 PubMed

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  • 86

    Sulkowski M, Telep LE, Colombo M, Durand F, Reddy KR, Lawitz E, et al.: Sofosbuvir and risk of estimated glomerular filtration rate decline or end-stage renal disease in patients with renal impairment. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 55: 11691178, 2022 PubMed

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  • 87

    Sise ME, Chute DF, Oppong Y, Davis MI, Long JD, Silva ST, et al.: Direct-acting antiviral therapy slows kidney function decline in patients with hepatitis C virus infection and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int 97: 193201, 2020 PubMed

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  • 88

    Barbieri D, García-Prieto A, Torres E, Verde E, Goicoechea M, Luño J: Mixed cryoglobulinaemia vasculitis after sustained hepatitis C virological response with direct-acting antivirals. Clin Kidney J 12: 362364, 2018 PubMed

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  • 89

    Fayed A, El Nokeety MM, Samy Abdelaziz T, Samir HH, Hamza WM, El Shabony T: Incidence and characteristics of de novo renal cryoglobulinemia after direct-acting antivirals treatment in an Egyptian hepatitis C cohort. Nephron 140: 275281, 2018 PubMed

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  • 90

    Sise ME, Wisocky J, Rosales IA, Chute D, Holmes JA, Corapi KM, et al.: Lupus-like immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis in patients with hepatitis C virus infection treated with oral, interferon-free, direct-acting antiviral therapy. Kidney Int Rep 1: 135143, 2016 PubMed

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