Epidemiology and Outcomes of Hypertension
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Sandra J. TalerDivision of Nephrology and Hypertension, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota

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  • 1

    Lewis CE, Fine LJ, Beddhu S, Cheung AK, Cushman WC, Cutler JA, et al.; SPRINT Research Group: Final report of a trial of intensive versus standard blood-pressure control. N Engl J Med 384: 19211930, 2021 PubMed

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  • 2

    Thomopoulos C, Parati G, Zanchetti A: Effects of blood pressure-lowering treatment on cardiovascular outcomes and mortality: 13-benefits and adverse events in older and younger patients with hypertension: Overview, meta-analyses and meta-regression analyses of randomized trials. J Hypertens 36: 16221636, 2018 PubMed

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  • 3

    Whelton PK, Carey RM, Aronow WS, Casey DE Jr, Collins KJ, Himmelfarb CD, et al.: ACC/AHA/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/AGS/APhA/ASH/ASPC/NMA/PCNA guideline for the prevention, detection, evaluation, and management of high blood pressure in adults: A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines. Hypertension 71: 12691324, 2017

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  • 4

    Ostchega Y, Fryar CD, Nwankwo T, Nguyen DT: Hypertension prevalence among adults aged 18 and over: United States, 2017–2018. NCHS Data Brief (364): 18, 2020 PubMed

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  • 5

    Virani SS, Alonso A, Aparicio HJ, Benjamin EJ, Bittencourt MS, Callaway CW, et al.; American Heart Association Council on Epidemiology and Prevention Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee: Heart disease and stroke statistics-2021 update: A report from the American Heart Association. Circulation 143: e254e743, 2021 PubMed

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  • 6

    Mills KT, Bundy JD, Kelly TN, Reed JE, Kearney PM, Reynolds K, et al.: Global disparities of hypertension prevalence and control: A systematic analysis of population-based studies from 90 countries. Circulation 134: 441450, 2016 PubMed

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  • 7

    NCD Risk Factor Collaboration (NCD-RisC): Worldwide trends in hypertension prevalence and progress in treatment and control from 1990 to 2019: A pooled analysis of 1201 population-representative studies with 104 million participants [published correction appears in Lancet 399: 520, 2022]. Lancet 398: 957980, 2021 PubMed

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  • 8

    Forouzanfar MH, Liu P, Roth GA, Ng M, Biryukov S, Marczak L, et al.: Global burden of hypertension and systolic blood pressure of at least 110 to 115 mm Hg, 1990–2015. JAMA 317: 165182, 2017 PubMed

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  • 9

    Muntner P, Hardy ST, Fine LJ, Jaeger BC, Wozniak G, Levitan EB, et al.: Trends in blood pressure control among US adults with hypertension, 1999–2000 to 2017–2018. JAMA 324: 11901200, 2020 PubMed

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  • 10

    James PA, Oparil S, Carter BL, Cushman WC, Dennison-Himmelfarb C, Handler J, et al.: 2014 evidence-based guideline for the management of high blood pressure in adults: Report from the panel members appointed to the Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8). JAMA 311: 507520, 2014 PubMed

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  • 11

    Williams B, Mancia G, Spiering W, Agabiti Rosei E, Azizi M, Burnier M, et al.; ESC Scientific Document Group: 2018 ESC/ESH guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension. Eur Heart J 39: 30213104, 2018 PubMed

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  • 12

    World Health Organization. Guideline for the pharmacological treatment of hypertension in adults, Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization, 2021

  • 13

    Siu AL; US Preventive Services Task Force: Screening for high blood pressure in adults: US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med 163: 778786, 2015 PubMed

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  • 14

    Krist AH, Davidson KW, Mangione CM, Cabana M, Caughey AB, Davis EM, et al.; US Preventive Services Task Force: Screening for hypertension in adults: US Preventive Services Task Force Reaffirmation Recommendation Statement. JAMA 325: 16501656, 2021 PubMed

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  • 15

    Guirguis-Blake JM, Evans CV, Webber EM, Coppola EL, Perdue LA, Weyrich MS: Screening for hypertension in adults: Updated Evidence Report and Systematic Review for the US Preventive Services Task Force. JAMA 325: 16571669, 2021 PubMed

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  • 16

    Abdalla M, Muntner P, Peterson ED: The USPSTF recommendation on blood pressure screening: Making 2021 the transformative year in controlling hypertension. JAMA 325: 16181619, 2021 PubMed

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  • 17

    Anstey DE, Bradley C, Shimbo D: USPSTF Recommendation Statement on Hypertension Screening in Adults-Where do we go from here? JAMA Netw Open 4: e214203, 2021 PubMed

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  • 18

    Ferdinand KC, Brown AL: Will the 2021 USPSTF hypertension screening recommendation decrease or worsen racial/ethnic disparities in blood pressure control? JAMA Netw Open 4: e213718, 2021 PubMed

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  • 19

    Yano Y, Lloyd-Jones DM: USPSTF Recommendations for Screening for Hypertension in Adults: It is time to unmask hypertensive risk. JAMA Cardiol 6: 869871, 2021 PubMed

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  • 20

    Yang WY, Melgarejo JD, Thijs L, Zhang ZY, Boggia J, Wei FF, et al.; International Database on Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Relation to Cardiovascular Outcomes (IDACO) Investigators: Association of office and ambulatory blood pressure with mortality and cardiovascular outcomes. JAMA 322: 409420, 2019 PubMed

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  • 21

    Blood Pressure Lowering Treatment Trialists’ Collaboration: Pharmacological blood pressure lowering for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease across different levels of blood pressure: An individual participant-level data meta-analysis. Lancet 397: 16251636, 2021 PubMed

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  • 22

    Fontil V, Pacca L, Bellows BK, Khoong E, McCulloch CE, Pletcher M, et al.: Association of differences in treatment intensification, missed visits, and scheduled follow-up interval with racial or ethnic disparities in blood pressure control. JAMA Cardiol 7: 204212, 2022 PubMed

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  • 23

    Commodore-Mensah Y, Dennison Himmelfarb C: Treatment intensification and missed visits as important targets for reducing racial and ethnic disparities in hypertension control. JAMA Cardiol 7: 213214, 2021

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  • 24

    Gu A, Yue Y, Desai RP, Argulian E: Racial and ethnic differences in antihypertensive medication use and blood pressure control among US adults with hypertension: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003 to 2012. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes 10: e003166, 2017 PubMed

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  • 25

    Pajewski NM, Berlowitz DR, Bress AP, Callahan KE, Cheung AK, Fine LJ, et al.: Intensive vs standard blood pressure control in adults 80 years or older: A secondary analysis of the systolic blood pressure intervention trial. J Am Geriatr Soc 68: 496504, 2020 PubMed

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  • 26

    D’Anci KE, Tipton K, Hedden-Gross A, Rouse B, Hermanson L, Fontanarosa J: Effect of intensive blood pressure lowering on cardiovascular outcomes: A systematic review prepared for the 2020 U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs/U.S. Department of Defense Guidelines. Ann Intern Med 173: 895903, 2020 PubMed

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  • 27

    Tajeu GS, Booth JN 3rd, Colantonio LD, Gottesman RF, Howard G, Lackland DT, et al.: Incident cardiovascular disease among adults with blood pressure <140/90 mm Hg. Circulation 136: 798812, 2017 PubMed

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  • 28

    Flynn JT, Kaelber DC, Baker-Smith CM, Blowey D, Carroll AE, Daniels SR, et al.; Subcommittee on Screening and Management of High Blood Pressure in Children: Clinical Practice Guideline for Screening and Management of High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents. Pediatrics 140: e20171904, 2017 PubMed

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  • 29

    Hinton TC, Adams ZH, Baker RP, Hope KA, Paton JFR, Hart EC, et al.: Investigation and treatment of high blood pressure in young people: Too much medicine or appropriate risk reduction? Hypertension 75: 1622, 2020 PubMed

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  • 30

    Lee H, Yano Y, Cho SMJ, Park JH, Park S, Lloyd-Jones DM, et al.: Cardiovascular risk of isolated systolic or diastolic hypertension in young adults. Circulation 141: 17781786, 2020 PubMed

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  • 31

    Jones DW, Whelton PK, Allen N, Clark 3rd D, Gidding SS, Muntner P, et al.; American Heart Association Council on Hypertension; Council on the Kidney in Cardiovascular Disease; Council on Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology; Council on Cardiovascular Radiology and Intervention; Council on Lifelong Congenital Heart Disease and Heart Health in the Young; and Stroke Council: Management of stage 1 hypertension in adults with a low 10-year risk for cardiovascular disease: Filling a guidance gap: A scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Hypertension 77: e58e67, 2021 PubMed

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  • 32

    American Diabetes Association Professional Practice Committee: 10. Cardiovascular disease and risk management: Standards of medical care in diabetes-2022. Diabetes Care 45: S144S174, 2022 PubMed

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  • 33

    Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Blood Pressure Work Group: KDIGO 2021 clinical practice guideline for the management of blood pressure in chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int 99: S1S87, 2021 PubMed

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  • 34

    Roerecke M, Kaczorowski J, Myers MG: Comparing automated office blood pressure readings with other methods of blood pressure measurement for identifying patients with possible hypertension: A systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Intern Med 179: 351362, 2019 PubMed

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  • 35

    Cheung AK, Rahman M, Reboussin DM, Craven TE, Greene T, Kimmel PL, et al.; SPRINT Research Group: Effects of intensive BP control in CKD. J Am Soc Nephrol 28: 28122823, 2017 PubMed

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