Epidemiology of Kidney Transplantation: Equity in Access and Allocation
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  • 1 Division of Nephrology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina
  • | 2 Division of Abdominal Transplant Surgery, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina
  • 1

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  • 2

    Purnell TS, Crews DC: Persistent disparities in preemptive kidney transplantation. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 14: 14301431, 2019 PubMed

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    Schold JD, Mohan S, Huml A, Buccini LD, Sedor JR, Augustine JJ, et al.: Failure to advance access to kidney transplantation over two decades in the United States. J Am Soc Nephrol 32: 913926, 2021 PubMed

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  • 9

    McPherson LJ, Walker ER, Lee YH, Gander JC, Wang Z, Reeves-Daniel AM, et al.; Southeastern Kidney Transplant Coalition: Dialysis facility profit status and early steps in kidney transplantation in the Southeastern United States. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 16: 926936, 2021 PubMed

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  • 10

    Gander JC, Zhang X, Ross K, Wilk AS, McPherson L, Browne T, et al.: Association between dialysis facility ownership and access to kidney transplantation. JAMA 322: 957973, 2019 PubMed

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  • 11

    Smith S, Nie J, Noyes K, Keller M, Kayler L: Technology access and use among kidney transplant candidates vulnerable to health disparities. Clin Transplant 34: e14012, 2020 PubMed

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  • 12

    Wang A, Caicedo JC, McNatt G, Abecassis M, Gordon EJ: Financial feasibility analysis of a culturally and linguistically competent Hispanic kidney transplant program. Transplantation 105: 628636, 2021 PubMed

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  • 13

    Ku E, McCulloch CE, Adey DB, Li L, Johansen KL: Racial disparities in eligibility for preemptive waitlisting for kidney transplantation and modification of eGFR thresholds to equalize waitlist time. J Am Soc Nephrol 32: 677685, 2021 PubMed

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  • 15

    Zelnick LR, Leca N, Young B, Bansal N: Association of the estimated glomerular filtration rate with vs. without a coefficient for race with time to eligibility for kidney transplant. JAMA Netw Open 4: e2034004, 2021

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  • 16

    Inker LA, Eneanya ND, Coresh J, Tighiouart H, Wang D, Sang Y, et al.; Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration: New creatinine- and cystatin C-based equations to estimate GFR without race. N Engl J Med 385: 17371749, 2021 PubMed

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  • 17

    Schold JD, Huml AM, Poggio ED, Sedor JR, Husain SA, King KL, et al.: Patients with high priority for kidney transplant who are not given expedited placement on the transplant waiting list represent lost opportunities. J Am Soc Nephrol 32: 17331746, 2021 PubMed

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  • 18

    Ku E, Whelan AM, McCulloch CE, Lee B, Niemann CU, Roll GR, et al.: Weighing the waitlist: Weight changes and access to kidney transplantation among obese candidates. PLoS One 15: e0242784, 2020 PubMed

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  • 19

    Kim Y, Bailey AJ, Morris MC, Kassam AF, Shah SA, Diwan TS: Kidney transplantation after sleeve gastrectomy in the morbidly obese candidate: Results of a 2-year experience. Surg Obes Relat Dis 16: 1014, 2020 PubMed

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  • 20

    Montgomery JR, Ghaferi AA, Waits SA: Bariatric surgery among patients with end-stage kidney disease: Improving access to transplantation. Surg Obes Relat Dis 16: 1416, 2020 PubMed

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  • 21

    Sheetz KH, Gerhardinger L, Dimick JB, Waits SA: Bariatric surgery and long-term survival in patients with obesity and end-stage kidney disease. JAMA Surg 155: 581588, 2020 PubMed

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  • 22

    Murphy KA, Greer RC, Roter DL, Crews DC, Ephraim PL, Carson KA, et al.: Awareness and discussions about chronic kidney disease among African-Americans with chronic kidney disease and hypertension: A mixed methods study. J Gen Intern Med 35: 298306, 2020 PubMed

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  • 23

    Ku E, Lee BK, McCulloch CE, Roll GR, Grimes B, Adey D, et al.: Racial and ethnic disparities in kidney transplant access within a theoretical context of medical eligibility. Transplantation 104: 14371444, 2020 PubMed

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  • 24

    Wesselman H, Ford CG, Leyva Y, Li X, Chang CH, Dew MA, et al.: Social determinants of health and race disparities in kidney transplant. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 16: 262274, 2021 PubMed

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  • 25

    Santos-Parker JR, Cassidy DE, Gomez-Rexrode AE, Englesbe MJ, Valbuena VSM: Meeting patients at the dialysis chair: The expanding role of telemedicine to address disparities in access to kidney transplantation. Am J Kidney Dis 78: 58, 2021 PubMed

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  • 26

    Rohan VS, Pilch N, Cassidy D, McGillicuddy J, White J, Lin A, et al.: Maintaining equity and access: Successful implementation of a virtual kidney transplantation evaluation. J Am Coll Surg 232: 444449, 2021 PubMed

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  • 27

    Harhay MN, Yang W, Sha D, Roy J, Chai B, Fischer MJ, et al.; CRIC Study Investigators: Health-related quality of life, depressive symptoms, and kidney transplant access in advanced CKD: Findings from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) study. Kidney Med 2: 600609.e1, 2020 PubMed

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  • 28

    Schold JD, Augustine JJ, Huml AM, O’Toole J, Sedor JR, Poggio ED: Modest rates and wide variation in timely access to repeat kidney transplantation in the United States. Am J Transplant 20: 769778, 2020 PubMed

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  • 29

    Sandal S, Ahn JB, Cantarovich M, Chu NM, Segev DL, McAdams-DeMarco MA: Evolving trends in risk profiles and outcomes in older adults undergoing kidney retransplantation. Transplantation 106: 10511060, 2022 PubMed

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  • 30

    Stith SS, Li X: Does increasing access-to-care delay accessing of care? Evidence from kidney transplantation. Econ Hum Biol 41: 100961, 2021 PubMed

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  • 31

    King KL, Husain SA, Jin Z, Brennan C, Mohan S: Trends in disparities in preemptive kidney transplantation in the United States. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 14: 15001511, 2019 PubMed

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  • 32

    Nissaisorakarn P, Xiao H, Doshi MD, Singh N, Lentine KL, Rosas SE: Eliminating racial disparities in kidney transplantation. Clin Transplant 35: e14397, 2021 PubMed

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  • 33

    Hall EC, James NT, Garonzik Wang JM, Berger JC, Montgomery RA, Dagher NN, et al.: Center-level factors and racial disparities in living donor kidney transplantation. Am J Kidney Dis 59: 849857, 2012 PubMed

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    Purnell TS, Luo X, Cooper LA, Massie AB, Kucirka LM, Henderson ML, et al.: Association of race and ethnicity with live donor kidney transplantation in the United States from 1995 to 2014. JAMA 319: 4961, 2018 PubMed

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  • 35

    Boulware LE, Sudan DL, Strigo TS, Ephraim PL, Davenport CA, Pendergast JF, et al.: Transplant social worker and donor financial assistance to increase living donor kidney transplants among African Americans: The TALKS study, a randomized comparative effectiveness trial. Am J Transplant 21: 21752187, 2021 PubMed

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  • 36

    Lentine KL, Mandelbrot D: Addressing disparities in living donor kidney transplantation: A call to action. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 13: 19091911, 2018 PubMed

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  • 37

    Locke JE, Reed RD, Kumar V, Berry B, Hendricks D, Carter A, et al.: Enhanced advocacy and health systems training through patient navigation increases access to living-donor kidney transplantation. Transplantation 104: 122129, 2020 PubMed

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  • 38

    Gordon EJ, Romo E, Amórtegui D, Rodas A, Anderson N, Uriarte J, et al.: Implementing culturally competent transplant care and implications for reducing health disparities: A prospective qualitative study. Health Expect 23: 14501465, 2020 PubMed

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  • 39

    Waterman AD, Lipsey AF, Ranasinghe ON, Wood EH, Anderson C, Bozzolo C, et al.: Recommendations for systematizing transplant education within a care delivery system for patients with chronic kidney disease stages 3 to 5. Prog Transplant 30: 7687, 2020 PubMed

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  • 40

    King KL, Husain SA, Schold JD, Patzer RE, Reese PP, Jin Z, et al.: Major variation across local transplant centers in probability of kidney transplant for wait-listed patients. J Am Soc Nephrol 31: 29002911, 2020 PubMed

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  • 41

    Stern J, Alnazari N, Tatapudi VS, Ali NM, Stewart ZA, Montgomery RA, et al.: Impact of the 2014 kidney allocation system changes on trends in A2/A2B into B kidney transplantation and organ procurement organization reporting of donor subtyping. Clin Transplant 35: e14393, 2021 PubMed

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  • 42

    Decoteau MA, Stewart DE, Toll AE, Kurian SM, Case J, Marsh CL: The advantage of multiple listing continues in the kidney allocation system era. Transplant Proc 53: 569580, 2021 PubMed

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  • 43

    Whelan AM, Johansen KL, Brar S, McCulloch CE, Adey DB, Roll GR, et al.: Association between longer travel distance for transplant care and access to kidney transplantation and graft survival in the United States. J Am Soc Nephrol 32: 11511161, 2021 PubMed

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  • 44

    Glorioso JM: Kidney allocation policy: Past, present, and future. Adv Chronic Kidney Dis 28: 511516, 2021 PubMed

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    DuBay DA, Morinelli TA, Su Z, Mauldin P, Weeda E, Casey MJ, et al.: Association of high burden of end-stage kidney disease with decreased kidney transplant rates with the updated US kidney allocation policy. JAMA Surg 156: 639645, 2021 PubMed

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  • 46

    Cannon RM, Goldberg DS, Eckhoff DE, Anderson DJ, Orandi BJ, Locke JE: Early outcomes with the liver-kidney safety net. Transplantation 105: 12611272, 2021 PubMed

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  • 47

    Samoylova ML, Wegermann K, Shaw BI, Kesseli SJ, Au S, Park C, et al.: The impact of the 2017 kidney allocation policy change on simultaneous liver-kidney utilization and outcomes. Liver Transpl 27: 11061115, 2021 PubMed

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    Altshuler PJ, Shah AP, Frank AM, Glorioso J, Dang H, Shaheen O, et al.: Simultaneous liver kidney allocation policy and the safety net: An early examination of utilization and outcomes in the United States. Transpl Int 34: 10521064, 2021 PubMed

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  • 49

    Jay CL, Washburn WK, Rogers J, Harriman D, Heimbach J, Stratta RJ: Difference in survival in early kidney after liver transplantation compared with simultaneous liver-kidney transplantation: Evaluating the potential of the “safety net”. J Am Coll Surg 230: 463473, 2020 PubMed

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    Shaw BI, Samoylova ML, Sanoff S, Barbas AS, Sudan DL, Boulware LE, et al.: Need for improvements in simultaneous heart-kidney allocation: The limitation of pretransplant glomerular filtration rate. Am J Transplant 21: 24682478, 2021 PubMed

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  • 51

    Westphal SG, Langewisch ED, Robinson AM, Wilk AR, Dong JJ, Plumb TJ, et al.: The impact of multi-organ transplant allocation priority on waitlisted kidney transplant candidates. Am J Transplant 21: 21612174, 2021 PubMed

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    Kayler LK, Nie J, Noyes K: Hardest-to-place kidney transplant outcomes in the United States. Am J Transplant 21: 36633672, 2021 PubMed

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    Reese PP, Aubert O, Naesens M, Huang E, Potluri V, Kuypers D, et al.: Assessment of the utility of kidney histology as a basis for discarding organs in the United States: A comparison of international transplant practices and outcomes. J Am Soc Nephrol 32: 397409, 2021 PubMed

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    Keijbeck A, Veenstra R, Pol RA, Konijn C, Jansen N, van Goor H, et al.: The association between macroscopic arteriosclerosis of the renal artery, microscopic arteriosclerosis, organ discard, and kidney transplant outcome. Transplantation 104: 25672574, 2020 PubMed

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    Yu K, King K, Husain SA, Dube GK, Stevens JS, Ratner LE, et al.: Kidney nonprocurement in solid organ donors in the United States. Am J Transplant 20: 34133425, 2020 PubMed

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    Cashion W, Gellad WF, Sileanu FE, Mor MK, Fine MJ, Hale J, et al.: Source of post-transplant care and mortality among kidney transplant recipients dually enrolled in VA and Medicare. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 16: 437445, 2021 PubMed

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  • 57

    O’Shea AMJ, Franciscus CL, Kaboli PJ, Kalil RS: Impact of rural residence on kidney transplant rates among waitlisted candidates in the VA transplant programs. Transplantation 103: 19451952, 2019 PubMed

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    Kesseli SJ, Samoylova ML, Moris D, Connor AA, Schmitz R, Shaw BI, et al.: Outcomes in kidney transplantation between Veterans Affairs and civilian hospitals: Considerations in the context of the MISSION Act. Ann Surg 272: 506510, 2020 PubMed

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  • 59

    Bova S, Cameron A, Durand C, Katzianer J, LeGrand M, Boyer L, et al.: Access to direct-acting antivirals for hepatitis C-negative transplant recipients receiving organs from hepatitis C-viremic donors. Am J Health Syst Pharm 79: 173178, 2022 PubMed

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  • 60

    Nguyen T, Sise ME, Delgado C, Williams W, Reese P, Goldberg D: Race, education, and gender disparities in transplantation of kidneys from hepatitis C viremic donors. Transplantation 105: 18501857, 2021 PubMed

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  • 61

    Chang SH, Merzkani M, Lentine KL, Wang M, Axelrod DA, Anwar S, et al.: Trends in discard of kidneys from hepatitis C viremic donors in the United States. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 16: 251261, 2021 PubMed

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  • 62

    Sharma V, Piscoran O, Summers A, Woywodt A, van der Veer SN, Ainsworth J, et al.: The use of health information technology in renal transplantation: A systematic review. Transplant Rev (Orlando) 35: 100607, 2021 PubMed

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  • 63

    Maroney K, Curtis LM, Opsasnick L, Smith KD, Eifler MR, Moore A, et al.: eHealth literacy and web-based patient portal usage among kidney and liver transplant recipients. Clin Transplant 35: e14184, 2021 PubMed

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