Management of CKD
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Nimrit Goraya Baylor Scott and White Health, Temple, Texas

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Jennifer D. Moran Baylor Scott and White Health, Temple, Texas

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  • 1

    Shlipak MG, Tummalapalli SL, Boulware LE, Grams ME, Ix JH, Jha V, et al.; Conference Participants: The case for early identification and intervention of chronic kidney disease: Conclusions from a Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Controversies Conference. Kidney Int 99: 3447, 2021 PubMed

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  • 2

    Nichols GA, Ustyugova A, Déruaz-Luyet A, O’Keeffe-Rosetti M, Brodovicz KG: Health care costs by type of expenditure across eGFR stages among patients with and without diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and heart failure. J Am Soc Nephrol 31: 15941601, 2020 PubMed

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  • 3

    Tomson CRV, Cheung AK, Mann JFE, Chang TI, Cushman WC, Furth SL, Hou FF, Knoll GA, Muntner P, Pecoits-Filho R, Tobe SW, Lytvyn L, Craig JC, Tunnicliffe DJ, Howell M, Tonelli M, Cheung M, Earley A, Ix JH, Sarnak MJ: Management of blood pressure in patients with chronic kidney disease not receiving dialysis: Synopsis of the 2021 KDIGO clinical practice guideline. Ann Intern Med 174: 12701281, 2021 34152826

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  • 4

    Foti KE, Wang D, Chang AR, Selvin E, Sarnak MJ, Chang TI, et al.: Potential implications of the 2021 KDIGO blood pressure guideline for adults with chronic kidney disease in the United States. Kidney Int 99: 686695, 2021 PubMed

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  • 5

    Wright JT Jr, Williamson JD, Whelton PK, Snyder JK, Sink KM, Rocco MV, et al.; SPRINT Research Group: A randomized trial of intensive versus standard blood-pressure control. N Engl J Med 373: 21032116, 2015 PubMed

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  • 6

    Lewis CE, Fine LJ, Beddhu S, Cheung AK, Cushman WC, Cutler JA, et al.; SPRINT Research Group: Final report of a trial of intensive versus standard blood-pressure control. N Engl J Med 384: 19211930, 2021 PubMed

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  • 7

    Collard D, Brouwer TF, Olde Engberink RHG, Zwinderman AH, Vogt L, van den Born BH: Initial estimated glomerular filtration rate decline and long-term renal function during intensive antihypertensive therapy: A post hoc analysis of the SPRINT and ACCORD-BP randomized controlled trials. Hypertension 75: 12051212, 2020 PubMed

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  • 8

    Reboussin DM, Williamson JD, Ryan LM: Project details: The SPRINT Alzheimer’s, Seniors and Kidney Study (SPRINT ASK). NIH Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tools (RePORT). Available at: https://reporter.nih.gov/project-details/9288712. Accessed June 8, 2022

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  • 9

    Malhotra R, Craven T, Ambrosius WT, Killeen AA, Haley WE, Cheung AK, et al.; SPRINT Research Group: Effects of intensive blood pressure lowering on kidney tubule injury in CKD: a longitudinal subgroup analysis in SPRINT. Am J Kidney Dis 73: 2130, 2019 PubMed

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  • 10

    Zoccali C, Blankestijn PJ, Bruchfeld A, Capasso G, Fliser D, Fouque D, et al.: Children of a lesser god: exclusion of chronic kidney disease patients from clinical trials. Nephrol Dial Transplant 34: 11121114, 2019 PubMed

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  • 11

    Drawz PE, Agarwal A, Dwyer JP, Horwitz E, Lash J, Lenoir K, et al.: Concordance between blood pressure in the systolic blood pressure intervention trial and in routine clinical practice. JAMA Intern Med 180: 16551663, 2020 PubMed

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  • 12

    Rahman M, Wang X, Bundy JD, Charleston J, Cohen D, Cohen J, et al.; CRIC Study Investigators: Prognostic significance of ambulatory BP monitoring in CKD: A report from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study. J Am Soc Nephrol 31: 26092621, 2020 PubMed

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  • 13

    Ku E, Sarnak MJ, Toto R, McCulloch CE, Lin F, Smogorzewski M, et al.: Effect of blood pressure control on long-term risk of end stage renal disease and death among subgroups of patients with chronic kidney disease. J Am Heart Assoc 8: e012749, 2019 PubMed

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  • 14

    Aggarwal R, Petrie B, Bala W, Chiu N: Mortality outcomes with intensive blood pressure targets in chronic kidney disease patients. Hypertension 73: 12751282, 2019

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  • 15

    Cushman WC, Evans GW, Byington RP, Goff DC Jr, Grimm RH Jr, Cutler JA, et al.; ACCORD Study Group: Effects of intensive blood-pressure control in type 2 diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med 362: 15751585, 2010 PubMed

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  • 16

    Lee JY, Park JT, Joo YS, Lee C, Yun H-R, Yoo T-H, et al.: Association of BP with the progression of CKD: Findings from KNOW-CKD Study. Am J Kidney Dis 78: 236245, 2021

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  • 17

    Murphy DP, Drawz PE, Foley RN: Trends in angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and angiotensin II receptor blocker use among those with impaired kidney function in the United States. J Am Soc Nephrol 30: 13141321, 2019 PubMed

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  • 18

    Weir MR, Lakkis JI, Jaar B, Rocco MV, Choi MJ, Kramer HJ, et al.: Use of renin-angiotensin system blockade in advanced CKD: An NKF-KDOQI Controversies Report. Am J Kidney Dis 72: 873884, 2018 PubMed

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  • 19

    Fu EL, Evans M, Clase CM, Tomlinson LA, van Diepen M, Dekker FW, et al.: Stopping renin-angiotensin system inhibitors in patients with advanced CKD and risk of adverse outcomes: A nationwide study. J Am Soc Nephrol 32: 424435, 2021 PubMed

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  • 20

    Qiao Y, Shin JI, Chen TK, Inker LA, Coresh J, Alexander GC, et al.: Association between renin-angiotensin system blockade discontinuation and all-cause mortality among persons with low estimated glomerular filtration rate. JAMA Intern Med 180: 718726, 2020 PubMed

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  • 21

    Arora N, Katz R, Bansal N: ACE inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker use patterns in advanced CKD and risk of kidney failure and death. Kidney Med 2: 248257, 2020

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  • 22

    Bhandari S, Ives N, Brettell EA, Valente M, Cockwell P, Topham PS, et al.: Multicentre randomized controlled trial of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker withdrawal in advanced renal disease: The STOP-ACEi trial. Nephrol Dial Transplant 31: 255261, 2016 PubMed

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  • 23

    Sinha AD, Agarwal R: Clinical pharmacology of antihypertensive therapy for the treatment of hypertension in CKD. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 14: 757764, 2019 PubMed

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  • 24

    Fu EL, Clase CM, Evans M, Lindholm B, Rotmans JI, Dekker FW, et al.: Comparative effectiveness of renin-angiotensin system inhibitors and calcium channel blockers in individuals with advanced CKD: A nationwide observational cohort study. Am J Kidney Dis 77: 719729.e1, 2021 PubMed

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  • 25

    Bovée DM, Visser WJ, Middel I, De Mik-van Egmond A, Greupink R, Masereeuw R, et al.: A randomized trial of distal diuretics versus dietary sodium restriction for hypertension in chronic kidney disease. J Am Soc Nephrol 31: 650662, 2020 PubMed

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  • 26

    Agarwal R, Sinha AD, Cramer AE, Balmes-Fenwick M, Dickinson JH, Ouyang F, et al.: Chlorthalidone for hypertension in advanced chronic kidney disease. N Engl J Med 385: 25072519, 2021 PubMed

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  • 27

    Fay KS, Cohen DL: Resistant hypertension in people with CKD: A review. Am J Kidney Dis 77: 110121, 2021 PubMed

  • 28

    Blackenburg M, Fett A-K, Eisenring S, Haas G, Gay A: Patient characteristics and initiation of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists in patients with CKD in routine clinical practice in the US: a retrospective cohort study. BMC Nephrol 20: 171, 2019 PubMed

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  • 29

    Agarwal R, Rossignol P, Romero A, Garza D, Mayo MR, Warren S, et al.: Patiromer versus placebo to enable spironolactone use in patients with resistant hypertension and chronic kidney disease (AMBER): A phase 2, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 394: 15401550, 2019 PubMed

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  • 30

    Ito S, Itoh H, Rakugi H, Okuda Y, Yoshimura M, Yamakawa S: Double-blind randomized phase 3 study comparing esaxerenone (CS-3150) and eplerenone in patients with essential hypertension (ESAX-HTN study). Hypertension 75: 5158, 2020 PubMed

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  • 31

    Georgianos PI, Agarwal R: Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonism in chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int Rep 6: 22812291, 2021 PubMed

  • 32

    Bakris GL, Agarwal R, Anker SD, Pitt B, Ruilope LM, Rossing P, et al.; FIDELIO-DKD Investigators: Effect of finerenone on chronic kidney disease outcomes in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med 383: 22192229, 2020 PubMed

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  • 33

    Ruilope LM, Agarwal R, Anker SD, Bakris GL, Filippatos G, Nowack C, et al.: Design and baseline characteristics of the finerenone in reducing cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in diabetic kidney disease trial. Am J Nephrol 50: 345356, 2019 31665733

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  • 34

    Bakris GL, Yang YF, Pitt B: Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists for hypertension management in advanced chronic kidney disease: BLOCK-CKD Trial. Hypertension 76: 144149, 2020

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  • 35

    Noel JA, Bota SE, Petrcich W, Garg AX, Carrero JJ, Harel Z, et al.: Risk of hospitalization for serious adverse gastrointestinal events associated with sodium polystyrene sulfonate use in patients of advanced age. JAMA Intern Med 179: 10251033, 2019

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  • 36

    Clegg DJ, Palmer BF: Potassium binding for conservative and preservative management of chronic kidney disease. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens 29: 2938, 2020 PubMed

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  • 37

    Spinowitz BS, Fishbane S, Pergola PE, Roger SD, Lerma EV, Butler J, et al.; ZS-005 Study Investigators: Sodium zirconium cyclosilicate in individuals with hyperkalemia: A 12-month phase 3 study. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 14: 798809, 2019 PubMed

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  • 38

    Roger SD, Lavin PT, Lerma EV, McCullough PA, Butler J, Spinowitz BS, et al.: Long-term safety and efficacy of sodium zirconium cyclosilicate for hyperkalaemia in patients with mild/moderate versus severe/end-stage chronic kidney disease: Comparative results from an open-label, phase 3 study. Nephrol Dial Transplant 36: 137150, 2021 PubMed

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  • 39

    Alicic RZ, Cox EJ, Neumiller JJ, Tuttle KR: Incretin drugs in diabetic kidney disease: Biological mechanisms and clinical evidence. Nat Rev Nephrol 17: 227244, 2021 PubMed

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  • 40

    Górriz JL, Soler MJ, Navarro-González JF, García-Carro C, Puchades MJ, D’Marco L, et al.: GLP-1 receptor agonists and diabetic kidney disease: A call of attention to nephrologists. J Clin Med 9: 947, 2020 PubMed

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  • 41

    Nespoux J, Vallon V: Renal effects of SGLT2 inhibitors: An update. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens 29: 190198, 2020 PubMed

  • 42

    Mima A: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors in patients with non-diabetic chronic kidney disease. Adv Ther 38: 22012212, 2021 PubMed

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    Dekkers CCJ, Gansevoort RT: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors: Extending the indication to non-diabetic kidney disease? Nephrol Dial Transplant 35: i33i42, 2020 PubMed

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  • 44

    Lee JF, Berzan E, Sridhar VS, Odutayo A, Cherney DZI: Cardiorenal protection in diabetic kidney disease. Endocrinol Metab (Seoul) 36: 256269, 2021 PubMed

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    Yamada T, Wakabayashi M, Bhalla A, Chopra N, Miyashita H, Mikami T, et al.: Cardiovascular and renal outcomes with SGLT-2 inhibitors versus GLP-1 receptor agonists in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease: A systematic review and network meta-analysis. Cardiovasc Diabetol 20: 14, 2021 PubMed

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  • 46

    de Boer IH, Caramori ML, Chan JCN, Heerspink HJL, Hurst C, Khunti K, et al.: Executive summary of the 2020 KDIGO Diabetes Management in CKD Guideline: Evidence-based advances in monitoring and treatment. Kidney Int 98: 839848, 2020 PubMed

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  • 47

    Chen TK, Sperati CJ, Thavarajah S, Grams ME: Reducing kidney function decline in patients with CKD: Core Curriculum 2021. Am J Kidney Dis 77: 969983, 2021

  • 48

    Levin A, Perkovic V, Wheeler DC, Hantel S, George JT, von Eynatten M, et al.: Empagliflozin and cardiovascular and kidney outcomes across KDIGO risk categories: Post hoc analysis of a randomized, double blind, placebo- controlled multinational trial. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 15: 14331444, 2020

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  • 49

    Neuen BL, Jardine MJ, Perkovic V: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibition: Which patient with chronic kidney disease should be treated in the future? Nephrol Dial Transplant 35: i48i55, 2020 PubMed

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  • 50

    American Diabetes Association: 9. Pharmacologic approaches to glycemic treatment: Standards of medical care in diabetes–2021. Diabetes Care 44: S111S124, 2021 10.2337/dc21-S009

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  • 51

    Anker SD, Butler J, Filippatos G, Khan MS, Marx N, Lam CSP, et al.: Effect of empagliflozin on cardiovascular and renal outcomes in patients with heart failure by baseline diabetes status: Results from the EMPEROR-Reduced Trial. Circulation 143: 337349, 2021

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  • 52

    Zannad F, Ferreira JP, Pocock SJ, Anker SD, Butler J, Filippatos G, et al.: SGLT2 inhibitors in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction: A meta-analysis of the EMPEROR-Reduced and DAPA-HF trials. Lancet 396: 819829, 2020 PubMed

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  • 53

    Heerspink HJL, Stefánsson BV, Correa-Rotter R, Chertow GM, Greene T, Hou FF, et al.; DAPA-CKD Trial Committees and Investigators: Dapagliflozin in patients with chronic kidney disease. N Engl J Med 383: 14361446, 2020 PubMed

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  • 54

    Michos ED, Tuttle KR: GLP-1 receptor agonists in diabetic kidney disease. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 16: 15781580, 2021

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    Cao C, Yang S, Zhou Z: GLP-1 receptor agonists and pancreatic safety concerns in type 2 diabetic patients: Data from cardiovascular outcome trials. Endocrine 68: 518525, 2020 PubMed

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  • 56

    Buse JB, Bain SC, Mann JFE, Nauck MA, Nissen SE, Pocock S, et al.; LEADER Trial Investigators: Cardiovascular risk reduction with liraglutide: An exploratory mediation analysis of the LEADER Trial. Diabetes Care 43: 15461552, 2020 PubMed

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  • 57

    Zoungas S, de Boer IH: SGLT2 inhibitors in diabetic kidney disease. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 16: 631633, 2021 PubMed

  • 58

    Kelly JT, Su G, Zhang L, Qin X, Marshall S, González-Ortiz A, et al.: Modifiable lifestyle factors for primary prevention of CKD: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Soc Nephrol 32: 239253, 2021 PubMed

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  • 59

    Bach KE, Kelly JT, Palmer SC, Khalesi S, Strippoli GFM, Campbell KL: Healthy dietary patterns and incidence of CKD: A meta-analysis of cohort studies. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 14: 14411449, 2019 PubMed

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  • 60

    Goraya N, Munoz-Maldonado Y, Simoni J, Wesson DE: Fruit and vegetable treatment of chronic kidney disease-related metabolic acidosis reduces cardiovascular risk better than sodium bicarbonate. Am J Nephrol 49: 438448, 2019 PubMed

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  • 61

    Joshi S, McMacken M, Kalantar-Zadeh K: Plant-based diets for kidney disease: A guide for clinicians. Am J Kidney Dis 77: 287296, 2021 PubMed

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    Saglimbene VM, Wong G, Ruospo M, Palmer SC, Garcia-Larsen V, Natale P, et al.: Fruit and vegetable intake and mortality in adults undergoing maintenance hemodialysis. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 14: 250260, 2019 PubMed

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  • 63

    Carrero JJ, González-Ortiz A, Avesani CM, Bakker SJL, Bellizzi V, Chauveau P, et al.: Plant-based diets to manage the risks and complications of CKD. Nat Rev Nephrol 16: 525542, 2020

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  • 64

    Bernier-Jean A, Wong G, Saglimbene V, Ruospo M, Palmer SC, Natale P, et al.: Dietary potassium intake and all-cause mortality in adults treated with hemodialysis. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 16: 18511861, 2021 PubMed

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  • 65

    Zhang L, Wang Y, Xiong L, Luo Y. Huang Z, Yi B: Exercise therapy improves eGFR, and reduces blood pressure and BMI in nondialysis CKD patients: Evidence from a meta-analysis. BMC Nephrol 20: 398, 2019

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    Hellberg M, Höglund P, Svensson P, Clyne N: Randomized controlled trial of exercise in CKD–the RENEXC study. Kidney Int Rep 4: 963976, 2019 PubMed

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    Lee MJ, Park JT, Chang TI, Joo YS, Yoo TH, Park SK, et al.: Smoking cessation and coronary artery calcification in CKD. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 16: 870879, 2021 PubMed

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    Goraya N, Simoni J, Sager LN, Madias NE, Wesson DE: Urine citrate excretion as a marker of acid retention in patients with chronic kidney disease without overt metabolic acidosis. Kidney Int 95: 11901196, 2019 PubMed

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  • 69

    Gianella FG, Prado VE, Poindexter JR, Adams-Huet B, Li X, Miller RT, et al.: Spot urinary citrate-to-creatinine ratio is a marker for acid-base status in chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int 99: 208217, 2021 PubMed

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    Raphael KL, Carroll DJ, Murray J, Greene T, Beddhu S: Urine ammonium predicts clinical outcomes in hypertensive kidney disease. J Am Soc Nephrol 28: 24832490, 2017 PubMed

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  • 71

    Di Iorio BR, Bellasi A, Raphael KL, Santoro D, Aucella F, Garofano L, et al.; UBI Study Group: Treatment of metabolic acidosis with sodium bicarbonate delays progression of chronic kidney disease: The UBI Study. J Nephrol 32: 9891001, 2019

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    Raphael KL, Isakova T, Ix JH, Raj DS, Wolf M, Fried LF, et al.: A randomized trial comparing the safety, adherence, and pharmacodynamics profiles of two doses of sodium bicarbonate in CKD: The BASE Pilot Trial. J Am Soc Nephrol 31: 161174, 2020 PubMed

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    Adrogué HJ, Madias NE: Veverimer: An emerging potential treatment option for managing the metabolic acidosis of CKD. Am J Kidney Dis 76: 861867, 2020 PubMed

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    Melamed ML, Raphael KL: Metabolic acidosis in CKD: A review of recent findings. Kidney Med 3: 267277, 2021 PubMed

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    Batchelor EK, Kapitsinou P, Pergola PE, Kovesdy CP, Jalal DI: Iron deficiency in chronic kidney disease: Updates on pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment. J Am Soc Nephrol 31: 456468, 2020 PubMed

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    Haase VH: Hypoxia-inducible factor-prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors in the treatment of anemia of chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int Suppl (2011) 11: 825, 2021

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    Nangaku M, Kondo K, Kokado Y, Ueta K, Kaneko G, Tandai T, et al.: Phase 3 randomized study comparing vadadustat with darbepoetin alfa for anemia in Japanese patients with nondialysis-dependent CKD. J Am Soc Nephrol 32: 17791790, 2021 10.1681/ASN.2020091311.

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    Chertow GM, Eckardt KU: Vadadustat for anemia in patients with dialysis-dependent or non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease. Reply. N Engl J Med 385: e56, 2021 PubMed

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    Singh AK, Carroll K, McMurray JJV, Solomon S, Jha V, Johansen KL, et al.; ASCEND-ND Study Group: Daprodustat for the treatment of anemia in patients not undergoing dialysis. N Engl J Med 385: 23132324, 2021 PubMed

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    Macdougall IC, White C, Anker SD, Bhandari S, Farrington K, Kalra PA, et al.; PIVOTAL Investigators and Committees: Intravenous iron in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis. N Engl J Med 380: 447458, 2019 PubMed

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    Guedes M, Muenz DG, Zee J, Bieber B, Stengel B, Massy ZA, et al.; CKDopps Investigators: Serum biomarkers of iron stores are associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events in nondialysis CKD patients, with or without anemia. J Am Soc Nephrol 32: 20202030, 2021

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    Mc Causland FR, Claggett B, Burdmann EA, Chertow GM, Cooper ME, Eckardt KU, et al.: Treatment of anemia with darbepoetin prior to dialysis initiation and cardiovascular outcomes: Analyses from the Trial to Reduce Cardiovascular Events with Aranesp Therapy (TREAT). Am J Kidney Dis 73: 309315, 2019 PubMed

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    Toto R, Petersen J, Berns JS, Lewis EF, Tran Q, Weir MR: A randomized trial of strategies using darbepoetin alfa to avoid transfusions in CKD. J Am Soc Nephrol 32: 469478, 2021 PubMed

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    Babitt JL, Eisenga MF, Haase VH, Kshirsagar AV, Levin A, Locatelli F, et al.; Conference Participants: Controversies in optimal anemia management: conclusions from a Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Conference. Kidney Int 99: 12801295, 2021 PubMed

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