Getting Chronic Kidney Disease on the Map
By:
Valerie A. Luyckx Renal Division, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA
Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
Department of Nephrology, University Children’s Hospital, Zürich, Switzerland

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  • 1

    World Health Organization: The top 10 causes of death, 2020. Available at https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/the-top-10-causes-of-death. Accessed April 30, 2021

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  • 2

    Jager KJ, Kovesdy C, Langham R, Rosenberg M, Jha V, Zoccali C: A single number for advocacy and communication-worldwide more than 850 million individuals have kidney diseases. Kidney Int 96: 10481050, 2019 10.1016/j.kint.2019.07.012

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  • 3

    Luyckx VA, Cherney DZI, Bello AK: Preventing CKD in developed countries. Kidney Int Rep 5: 263277, 2019 10.1016/j.ekir.2019.12.003PubMed

  • 4

    Lewington AJ, Cerdá J, Mehta RL: Raising awareness of acute kidney injury: A global perspective of a silent killer. Kidney Int 84: 457467, 2013 10.1038/ki.2013.153PubMed

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  • 5

    International Society of Nephrology: Global Kidney Health Atlas: A Report by the International Society of Nephrology on the Global Burden of End-Stage Kidney Disease and Capacity for Kidney Replacement Therapy and Conservative Care across World Countries and Regions, Brussels, Belgium, International Society of Nephrology, 2019

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  • 6

    Bikbov B, Perico N, Remuzzi G; on behalf of the GBD Genitourinary Diseases Expert Group: Disparities in chronic kidney disease prevalence among males and females in 195 countries: Analysis of the Global Burden of Disease 2016 Study. Nephron 139: 313318, 2018 10.1159/000489897PubMed

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  • 7

    GBD Chronic Kidney Disease Collaboration: Global, regional, and national burden of chronic kidney disease, 1990-2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. Lancet 395: 709733, 2020 10.1016/s0140-6736(20)30045-3PubMed

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  • 8

    Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation: GBD Compare/Viz Hub, 2021. Available at: https://vizhub.healthdata.org/gbd-compare/. Accessed April 30, 2021

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  • 9

    International Society of Nephrology: KDIGO 2012 clinical practice guideline for the evaluation and management of chronic kidney disease. Available at https://kdigo.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/KDIGO_2012_CKD_GL.pdf. Accessed April 30, 2021

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  • 10

    International Society of Nephrology: Global Kidney Health Atlas: A report by the International Society of Nephrology on the current state of organization and structures for kidney care across the globe. Available at https://www2.theisn.org/GKHA. Accessed April 30, 2021

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  • 11

    GBD 2019 Risk Factor Collaborators: The Lancet: Latest global disease estimates reveal perfect storm of rising chronic diseases and public health failures fuelling COVID-19 pandemic, 2021. Available at: http://www.healthdata.org/news-release/lancet-latest-global-disease-estimates-reveal-perfect-storm-rising-chronic-diseases-and. Accessed April 30, 2021

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  • 12

    Liyanage T, Ninomiya T, Jha V, Neal B, Patrice HM, Okpechi I, et al.: Worldwide access to treatment for end-stage kidney disease: A systematic review. Lancet 385: 19751982, 2015 10.1016/s0140-6736(14)61601-9PubMed

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  • 13

    Yeung E, Bello AK, Levin A, Lunney M, Osman MA, Ye F, et al.: Current status of health systems financing and oversight for end-stage kidney disease care: A cross-sectional global survey. BMJ Open 11: e047245, 2021 10.1136/bmjopen-2020-047245PubMed

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  • 14

    Bello AK, Levin A, Lunney M, Osman MA, Ye F, Ashuntantang GE, et al.: Status of care for end stage kidney disease in countries and regions worldwide: International cross sectional survey. BMJ 367: l5873, 2019 10.1136/bmj.l5873PubMed

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  • 15

    Luyckx VA: Ethical Challenges Relating to Provision of Sustainable Renal Care in Resource Limited Settings–Focus on Sub-Saharan Africa PhD thesis, University of Zurich, 2019.

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  • 16

    GBD 2017 Causes of Death Collaborators: Global, regional, and national age-sex-specific mortality for 282 causes of death in 195 countries and territories, 1980-2017: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. Lancet 392: 17361788, 2018 10.1016/s0140-6736(18)32203-7PubMed

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  • 17

    Garcia-Garcia G, Jha V; World Kidney Day Steering Committee: CKD in disadvantaged populations. Kidney Int 87: 251253, 2015 10.1038/ki.2014.369PubMed

  • 18

    Luyckx VA, Tonelli M, Stanifer JW: The global burden of kidney disease and the sustainable development goals. Bull World Health Organ 96: 414422D, 2018 10.2471/BLT.17.206441PubMed

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  • 19

    Stutzin Donoso F: Chronic disease as risk multiplier for disadvantage. J Med Ethics 44: 371375, 2018 10.1136/medethics-2017-104321PubMed

  • 20

    Luyckx VA, Al-Aly Z, Bello AK, Bellorin-Font E, Carlini RG, Fabian J, et al.: Sustainable Development Goals relevant to kidney health: An update on progress. Nat Rev Nephrol 17: 1532, 2021 10.1038/s41581-020-00363-6PubMed

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  • 21

    Nishtar S, Niinistö S, Sirisena M, Vázquez T, Skvortsova V, Rubinstein A, et al.; Commissioners of the WHO Independent High-Level Commission on NCDs: Time to deliver: Report of the WHO Independent High-Level Commission on NCDs. Lancet 392: 245252, 2018 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)31258-3PubMed

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  • 22

    World Health Organization: Global Action Plan for the prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases 2013-2020. Available at: http://www.who.int/nmh/events/ncd_action_plan/en/. Accessed April 30, 2021

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  • 23

    Harper T, Ghebreyesus TA, Fore H, Ulstein D-I: Building back better: Investing in healthy populations and resilient health systems for NCDs and mental health to be better prepared for future crises, 2021. Available at: https://foresightglobalhealth.com/investing-in-healthy-populations-and-resilient-health-systems-for-ncds-and-mental-health-to-be-better-prepared-for-future-crises/. Accessed April 30, 2021

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  • 24

    Luyckx VA: Equity is key to build back better after COVID-19: Prioritize noncommunicable diseases and kidney health. Kidney360 2: 747750, 2021 10.34067/KID.0006932020PubMed

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  • 25

    Foreman KJ, Marquez N, Dolgert A, Fukutaki K, Fullman N, McGaughey M, et al.: Forecasting life expectancy, years of life lost, and all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 250 causes of death: Reference and alternative scenarios for 2016-40 for 195 countries and territories. Lancet 392: 20522090, 2018 10.1016/s0140-6736(18)31694-5PubMed

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  • 26

    United Nations: Sustainable Development Goals, 2020. Available at: https://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/. Accessed April 30, 2021

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  • 27

    World Health Organization: Saving lives, spending less: A strategic response to noncommunicable diseases, 2018. Available at: https://www.who.int/ncds/management/ncds-strategic-response/en/. Accessed April 30, 2021

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  • 28

    Thomas LM, D’Ambruoso L, Balabanova D: Verbal autopsy in health policy and systems: A literature review. BMJ Glob Health 3: e000639, 2018 10.1136/bmjgh-2017-000639PubMed

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  • 29

    Bello AK, Ronksley PE, Tangri N, Kurzawa J, Osman MA, Singer A, et al.: Quality of chronic kidney disease management in Canadian primary care. JAMA Netw Open 2: e1910704, 2019 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.10704PubMed

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  • 30

    Tonelli M, Dickinson JA: Early detection of CKD: Implications for low-income, middle-income, and high-income countries. J Am Soc Nephrol 31: 19311940, 2020 10.1681/ASN.2020030277PubMed

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  • 31

    Htay H, Alrukhaimi M, Ashuntantang GE, Bello AK, Bellorin-Font E, Benghanem Gharbi M, et al.: Global access of patients with kidney disease to health technologies and medications: Findings from the Global Kidney Health Atlas project. Kidney Int Suppl (2011) 8: 6473, 2018 10.1016/j.kisu.2017.10.010

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  • 32

    Bernabé-Ortiz A, Zafra-Tanaka JH, Moscoso-Porras M, Sampath R, Vetter B, Miranda JJ, et al.: Diagnostics and monitoring tools for noncommunicable diseases: A missing component in the global response. Global Health 17: 26, 2021 10.1186/s12992-021-00676-6PubMed

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  • 33

    Velazquez Berumen A, Garner S, Hill SR, Swaminathan S: Making diagnostic tests as essential as medicines. BMJ Glob Health 3: e001033, 2018 10.1136/bmjgh-2018-001033PubMed

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  • 34

    Levin A, Tonelli M, Bonventre J, Coresh J, Donner JA, Fogo AB, et al.; ISN Global Kidney Health Summit participants: Global kidney health 2017 and beyond: A roadmap for closing gaps in care, research, and policy. Lancet 390: 18881917, 2017 10.1016/S0140-6736(17)30788-2PubMed

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  • 35

    World Health Organization: HEARTS Technical Package, 2018. Available at: http://www.who.int/cardiovascular_diseases/hearts/en/. Accessed May 5, 2021

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  • 36

    Vanholder R, Annemans L, Brown E, Gansevoort R, Gout-Zwart JJ, Lameire N, et al.; European Kidney Health Alliance: Reducing the costs of chronic kidney disease while delivering quality health care: a call to action. Nat Rev Nephrol 13: 393409, 2017 10.1038/nrneph.2017.63PubMed

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  • 37

    Luyckx VA, Tuttle KR, Garcia-Garcia G, Gharbi MB, Heerspink HJL, Johnson DW, et al.: Reducing major risk factors for chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int Suppl (2011) 7: 7187, 2017 10.1016/j.kisu.2017.07.003

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  • 38

    Wirtz VJ, Hogerzeil HV, Gray AL, Bigdeli M, de Joncheere CP, Ewen MA, et al.: Essential medicines for universal health coverage. Lancet 389: 403476, 2017 10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31599-9PubMed

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  • 39

    Chow CK, Nguyen TN, Marschner S, Diaz R, Rahman O, Avezum A, et al.; PURE Study: Availability and affordability of medicines and cardiovascular outcomes in 21 high-income, middle-income and low-income countries. BMJ Glob Health 5: e002640, 2020 10.1136/bmjgh-2020-002640PubMed

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  • 40

    Khatib R, McKee M, Shannon H, Chow C, Rangarajan S, Teo K, et al.; PURE study investigators: Availability and affordability of cardiovascular disease medicines and their effect on use in high-income, middle-income, and low-income countries: An analysis of the PURE study data. Lancet 387: 6169, 2016 10.1016/S0140-6736(15)00469-9PubMed

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  • 41

    Jan S, Laba TL, Essue BM, Gheorghe A, Muhunthan J, Engelgau M, et al.: Action to address the household economic burden of non-communicable diseases. Lancet 391: 20472058, 2018 10.1016/s0140-6736(18)30323-4PubMed

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  • 42

    Essue BM, et al.: Disease Control Priorities. Improving Health and Reducing Poverty, edited by Jamison DT, et al., Vol. 9, Washington, DC, World Bank, 2018, pp 121143

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  • 43

    Essue BM, Wong G, Chapman J, Li Q, Jan S: How are patients managing with the costs of care for chronic kidney disease in Australia? A cross-sectional study. BMC Nephrol 14: 5, 2013 10.1186/1471-2369-14-5PubMed

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  • 44

    Kruk ME, Gage AD, Joseph NT, Danaei G, García-Saisó S, Salomon JA: Mortality due to low-quality health systems in the universal health coverage era: A systematic analysis of amenable deaths in 137 countries. Lancet 392: 22032212, 2018 10.1016/s0140-6736(18)31668-4PubMed

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  • 45

    Kruk ME, Gage AD, Arsenault C, Jordan K, Leslie HH, Roder-DeWan S, et al.: High-quality health systems in the Sustainable Development Goals era: Time for a revolution. Lancet Glob Health 6: e1196e1252, 2018 10.1016/S2214-109X(18)30386-3PubMed

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  • 46

    Vanholder R, Annemans L, Bello AK, Bikbov B, Gallego D, Gansevoort RT, et al.: Fighting the unbearable lightness of neglecting kidney health: The decade of the kidney. Clin Kidney J 14: 17191730, 2021 10.1093/ckj/sfab070PubMed

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  • 47

    Bignall ONR 2nd, Crews DC: Stony the road we trod: Towards racial justice in kidney care. Nat Rev Nephrol 17: 7980, 2021 10.1038/s41581-020-00389-wPubMed

  • 48

    Kevin Tucker J: Social justice as a tool to eliminate inequities in kidney disease. Semin Nephrol 41: 203210, 2021 10.1016/j.semnephrol.2021.05.001PubMed

  • 49

    ERA-EDTA Council; ERACODA Working Group: Chronic kidney disease is a key risk factor for severe COVID-19: A call to action by the ERA-EDTA. Nephrol Dial Transplant 36: 8794, 2021 10.1093/ndt/gfaa314PubMed

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