Epidemiology of Acute Kidney Injury (AKI)
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  • 1 Renal Division, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts
  • 1

    Hoste EAJ, Kellum JA, Selby NM, Zarbock A, Palevsky PM, Bagshaw SM, et al.: Global epidemiology and outcomes of acute kidney injury. Nat Rev Nephrol 14: 607625, 2018 https://doi.org/10.1038/s41581-018-0052-0PubMed

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  • 2

    Kellum JA: Why are patients still getting and dying from acute kidney injury? Curr Opin Crit Care 22: 513519, 2016 https://doi.org/10.1097/MCC.0000000000000358PubMed

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  • 3

    Ronco C, Bellomo R, Kellum JA: Acute kidney injury. Lancet 394: 19491964, 2019 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(19)32563-2PubMed

  • 4

    National Kidney Foundation. KDIGO clinical [practice guideline for acute kidney injury. Available at https://kdigo.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/KDIGO-2012-AKI-Guideline-English.pdf. Accessed February 28, 2022.

  • 5

    Bellomo R, Ronco C, Kellum JA, Mehta RL, Palevsky P; Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative workgroup: Acute renal failure - definition, outcome measures, animal models, fluid therapy and information technology needs: The Second International Consensus Conference of the Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative (ADQI) Group. Crit Care 8: R204R212, 2004 https://doi.org/10.1186/cc2872PubMed

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  • 6

    Mehta RL, Kellum JA, Shah SV, Molitoris BA, Ronco C, Warnock DG, et al.; Acute Kidney Injury Network: Acute Kidney Injury Network: Report of an initiative to improve outcomes in acute kidney injury. Crit Care 11: R31, 2007 https://doi.org/10.1186/cc5713PubMed

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  • 7

    Sparrow HG, Swan JT, Moore LW, Gaber AO, Suki WN: Disparate outcomes observed within kidney disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) acute kidney injury stage 1. Kidney Int 95: 905913, 2019 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.kint.2018.11.030PubMed

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  • 8

    Waikar SS: Precision nosology versus precision nephrology: Defining acute kidney injury, again. Kidney Int 95: 741743, 2019 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.kint.2018.12.013PubMed

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  • 9

    Barasch J, Zager R, Bonventre JV: Acute kidney injury: A problem of definition. Lancet 389: 779781, 2017 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(17)30543-3PubMed

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  • 10

    Al-Jaghbeer M, Dealmeida D, Bilderback A, Ambrosino R, Kellum JA: Clinical decision support for in-hospital AKI. J Am Soc Nephrol 29: 654660, 2018 https://doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2017070765PubMed

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  • 11

    Wilson FP, Shashaty M, Testani J, Aqeel I, Borovskiy Y, Ellenberg SS, et al.: Automated, electronic alerts for acute kidney injury: A single-blind, parallel-group, randomised controlled trial. Lancet 385: 19661974, 2015 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(15)60266-5PubMed

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  • 12

    Colpaert K, Hoste EA, Steurbaut K, Benoit D, Van Hoecke S, De Turck F, et al.: Impact of real-time electronic alerting of acute kidney injury on therapeutic intervention and progression of RIFLE class. Crit Care Med 40: 11641170, 2012 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(15)60266-5PubMed

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  • 13

    Selby NM, Casula A, Lamming L, Stoves J, Samarasinghe Y, Lewington AJ, et al.: An organizational-level program of intervention for AKI: A pragmatic stepped wedge cluster randomized trial. J Am Soc Nephrol 30: 505515, 2019 https://doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2018090886PubMed

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  • 14

    Ho J, Tangri N, Komenda P, Kaushal A, Sood M, Brar R, et al.: Urinary, plasma, and serum biomarkers’ utility for predicting acute kidney injury associated with cardiac surgery in adults: A meta-analysis. Am J Kidney Dis 66: 9931005, 2015 https://doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.2015.06.018PubMed

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  • 15

    Srisawat N, Kellum JA: The role of biomarkers in acute kidney injury. Crit Care Clin 36: 125140, 2020 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ccc.2019.08.010PubMed

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  • 16

    Su LJ, Li YM, Kellum JA, Peng ZY: Predictive value of cell cycle arrest biomarkers for cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury: A meta-analysis. Br J Anaesth 121: 350357, 2018 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bja.2018.02.069PubMed

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  • 17

    Meersch M, Schmidt C, Hoffmeier A, Van Aken H, Wempe C, Gerss J, et al.: Prevention of cardiac surgery-associated AKI by implementing the KDIGO guidelines in high risk patients identified by biomarkers: The PrevAKI randomized controlled trial. Intensive Care Med 43: 15511561, 2017 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00134-016-4670-3PubMed

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  • 18

    Göcze I, Jauch D, Götz M, Kennedy P, Jung B, Zeman F, et al.: Biomarker-guided intervention to prevent acute kidney injury after major surgery: The prospective randomized BigpAK Study. Ann Surg 267: 10131020, 2018 https://doi.org/10.1097/SLA.0000000000002485PubMed

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  • 19

    Ostermann M, Bellomo R, Burdmann EA, Doi K, Endre ZH, Goldstein SL, et al.; Conference Participants: Controversies in acute kidney injury: Conclusions from a Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Conference. Kidney Int 98: 294309, 2020 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.kint.2020.04.020PubMed

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  • 20

    Hoste EA, Bagshaw SM, Bellomo R, Cely CM, Colman R, Cruz DN, et al.: Epidemiology of acute kidney injury in critically ill patients: The multinational AKI-EPI study. Intensive Care Med 41: 14111423, 2015 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00134-015-3934-7PubMed

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  • 21

    Mehta RL, Burdmann EA, Cerdá J, Feehally J, Finkelstein F, García-García G, et al.: Recognition and management of acute kidney injury in the International Society of Nephrology 0by25 Global Snapshot: A multinational cross-sectional study. Lancet 387: 20172025, 2016 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(16)30240-9PubMed

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  • 22

    Mehta RL, Cerdá J, Burdmann EA, Tonelli M, García-García G, Jha V, et al.: International Society of Nephrology’s 0by25 initiative for acute kidney injury (zero preventable deaths by 2025): A human rights case for nephrology. Lancet 385: 26162643, 2015 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(15)60126-XPubMed

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  • 23

    Susantitaphong P, Cruz DN, Cerda J, Abulfaraj M, Alqahtani F, Koulouridis I, et al.: Acute Kidney Injury Advisory Group of the American Society of Nephrology: World incidence of AKI: A meta-analysis. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 8: 14821493, 2013 https://doi.org/10.2215/CJN.00710113PubMed

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  • 24

    Hsu CY, Chinchilli VM, Coca S, Devarajan P, Ghahramani N, Go AS, et al.; ASSESS-AKI Investigators: Post-acute kidney injury proteinuria and subsequent kidney disease progression: The Assessment, Serial Evaluation, and Subsequent Sequelae in Acute Kidney Injury (ASSESS-AKI) Study. JAMA Intern Med 180: 402410, 2020 https://doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2019.6390PubMed

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  • 25

    Ikizler TA, Parikh CR, Himmelfarb J, Chinchilli VM, Liu KD, Coca SG, et al.; ASSESS-AKI Study Investigators: A prospective cohort study of acute kidney injury and kidney outcomes, cardiovascular events, and death. Kidney Int 99: 456465, 2021 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.kint.2020.06.032PubMed

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  • 26

    Uchino S, Kellum JA, Bellomo R, Doig GS, Morimatsu H, Morgera S, et al.; Beginning and Ending Supportive Therapy for the Kidney (BEST Kidney) Investigators: Acute renal failure in critically ill patients: A multinational, multicenter study. JAMA 294: 813818, 2005 https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.294.7.813PubMed

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  • 27

    Chertow GM, Burdick E, Honour M, Bonventre JV, Bates DW: Acute kidney injury, mortality, length of stay, and costs in hospitalized patients. J Am Soc Nephrol 16: 33653370, 2005 https://doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2004090740PubMed

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  • 28

    Coca SG, Singanamala S, Parikh CR: Chronic kidney disease after acute kidney injury: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Kidney Int 81: 442448, 2012 https://doi.org/10.1038/ki.2011.379PubMed

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  • 29

    Coca SG, Yusuf B, Shlipak MG, Garg AX, Parikh CR: Long-term risk of mortality and other adverse outcomes after acute kidney injury: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Kidney Dis 53: 961973, 2009 https://doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.2008.11.034PubMed

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  • 30

    James MT, Bhatt M, Pannu N, Tonelli M: Long-term outcomes of acute kidney injury and strategies for improved care. Nat Rev Nephrol 16: 193205, 2020 https://doi.org/10.1038/s41581-019-0247-zPubMed

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  • 31

    Noble RA, Lucas BJ, Selby NM: Long-term outcomes in patients with acute kidney injury. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 15: 423429, 2020 https://doi.org/10.2215/CJN.10410919PubMed

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  • 32

    See EJ, Jayasinghe K, Glassford N, Bailey M, Johnson DW, et al.: Long-term risk of adverse outcomes after acute kidney injury: A systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies using consensus definitions of exposure. Kidney Int 95: 160172, 2019 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.kint.2018.08.036PubMed

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  • 33

    Silver SA, Harel Z, McArthur E, Nash DM, Acedillo R, Kitchlu A, et al.: Causes of death after a hospitalization with AKI. J Am Soc Nephrol 29: 10011010, 2018 https://doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2017080882PubMed

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  • 34

    Gallagher M, Cass A, Bellomo R, Finfer S, Gattas D, Lee J, et al.; POST-RENAL Study Investigators and the ANZICS Clinical Trials Group: Long-term survival and dialysis dependency following acute kidney injury in intensive care: Extended follow-up of a randomized controlled trial. PLoS Med 11: e1001601, 2014 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(16)30240-9PubMed

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  • 35

    Pereira MB, Zanetta DM, Abdulkader RC: The real importance of pre-existing comorbidities on long-term mortality after acute kidney injury. PLoS One 7: e47746, 2012 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0047746PubMed

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  • 36

    Wald R, Quinn RR, Luo J, Li P, Scales DC, Mamdani MM, et al.; University of Toronto Acute Kidney Injury Research Group: Chronic dialysis and death among survivors of acute kidney injury requiring dialysis. JAMA 302: 11791185, 2009 https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2009.1322PubMed

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  • 37

    Bucaloiu ID, Kirchner HL, Norfolk ER, Hartle JE 2nd, Perkins RM: Increased risk of death and de novo chronic kidney disease following reversible acute kidney injury. Kidney Int 81: 477485, 2012 https://doi.org/10.1038/ki.2011.405PubMed

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  • 38

    Jones J, Holmen J, De Graauw J, Jovanovich A, Thornton S, Chonchol M: Association of complete recovery from acute kidney injury with incident CKD stage 3 and all-cause mortality. Am J Kidney Dis 60: 402408, 2012 https://doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.2012.03.014PubMed

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  • 39

    Stoumpos S, Mark PB, McQuarrie EP, Traynor JP, Geddes CC: Continued monitoring of acute kidney injury survivors might not be necessary in those regaining an estimated glomerular filtration rate >60 mL/min at 1 year. Nephrol Dial Transplant 32: 8188, 2017 https://doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfw413PubMed

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  • 40

    Hsu CY, Hsu RK, Liu KD, Yang J, Anderson A, Chen J, et al.; Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study Investigators and the Assessment, Serial Evaluation, and Subsequent Sequelae of Acute Kidney Injury (ASSESS-AKI) Study: Impact of AKI on urinary protein excretion: Analysis of two prospective cohorts. J Am Soc Nephrol 30: 12711281, 2019 https://doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2018101036PubMed

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  • 41

    Parr SK, Matheny ME, Abdel-Kader K, Greevy RA Jr, Bian A, Fly J, et al.: Acute kidney injury is a risk factor for subsequent proteinuria. Kidney Int 93: 460469, 2018 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.kint.2017.07.007PubMed

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