Acute Interstitial Nephritis and Crystalline Nephropathies
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Dennis G. Moledina Section of Nephrology and Clinical and Translational Research Accelerator, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut;

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Leal C. Herlitz Department of Anatomic Pathology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio; and

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Mark A. Perazella Section of Nephrology and Section of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut and Veterans Administration Medical Center, West Haven, Connecticut

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  • 1

    Cortazar FB, Kibbelaar ZA, Glezerman IG, Abudayyeh A, Mamlouk O, Motwani SS, et al.: Clinical features and outcomes of immune checkpoint inhibitor-associated AKI: A multicenter study. J Am Soc Nephrol 31: 435446, 2020 PubMed

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  • 2

    Jia Y, Su T, Gu Y, Li C, Zhou X, Su J, et al.: HLA-DQA1, -DQB1, and -DRB1 alleles associated with acute tubulointerstitial nephritis in a Chinese population: A single-center cohort study. J Immunol 201: 423431, 2018 PubMed

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  • 3

    Moledina DG, Wilson FP, Pober JS, Perazella MA, Singh N, Luciano RL, et al.: Urine TNF-α and IL-9 for clinical diagnosis of acute interstitial nephritis. JCI Insight 4: 4, 2019 PubMed

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  • 4

    Moledina DG, Wilson FP, Kukova L, Obeid W, Luciano R, Kuperman M, et al.: Urine interleukin-9 and tumor necrosis factor-α for prognosis of human acute interstitial nephritis. Nephrol Dial Transplant 36: 18511858, 2021 PubMed

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  • 5

    Muriithi AK, Nasr SH, Leung N: Utility of urine eosinophils in the diagnosis of acute interstitial nephritis. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 8: 18571862, 2013 PubMed

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    Goicoechea M, Rivera F, López-Gómez JM; Spanish Registry of Glomerulonephritis: Increased prevalence of acute tubulointerstitial nephritis. Nephrol Dial Transplant 28: 112115, 2013 PubMed

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  • 7

    Gesualdo L, Di Palma AM, Morrone LF, Strippoli GF, Schena FP; Italian Immunopathology Group, Italian Society of Nephrology: The Italian experience of the national registry of renal biopsies. Kidney Int 66: 890894, 2004 PubMed

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  • 8

    Ruffenach SJ, Siskind MS, Lien YHH: Acute interstitial nephritis due to omeprazole. Am J Med 93: 472473, 1992 PubMed

  • 9

    Muriithi AK, Leung N, Valeri AM, Cornell LD, Sethi S, Fidler ME, et al.: Clinical characteristics, causes and outcomes of acute interstitial nephritis in the elderly. Kidney Int 87: 458464, 2015 PubMed

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  • 10

    Antoniou T, Macdonald EM, Hollands S, Gomes T, Mamdani MM, Garg AX, et al.: Proton pump inhibitors and the risk of acute kidney injury in older patients: A population-based cohort study. CMAJ Open 3: E166E171, 2015 PubMed

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  • 11

    Simpson IJ, Marshall MR, Pilmore H, Manley P, Williams L, Thein H, et al.: Proton pump inhibitors and acute interstitial nephritis: report and analysis of 15 cases. Nephrology (Carlton) 11: 381385, 2006 PubMed

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  • 12

    Qato DM, Wilder J, Schumm LP, Gillet V, Alexander GC: Changes in prescription and over-the-counter medication and dietary supplement use among older adults in the United States, 2005 vs 2011. JAMA Intern Med 176: 473482, 2016 PubMed

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  • 13

    Lazarus B, Chen Y, Wilson FP, Sang Y, Chang AR, Coresh J, et al.: Proton pump inhibitor use and the risk of chronic kidney disease. JAMA Intern Med 176: 238246, 2016 PubMed

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  • 14

    Peng YC, Lin CL, Yeh HZ, Chang CS, Wu YL, Kao CH: Association between the use of proton pump inhibitors and the risk of ESRD in renal diseases: A population-based, case-control study. Medicine (Baltimore) 95: e3363, 2016 PubMed

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  • 15

    Xie Y, Bowe B, Li T, Xian H, Balasubramanian S, Al-Aly Z: Proton pump inhibitors and risk of incident CKD and progression to ESRD. J Am Soc Nephrol 27: 31533163, 2016 PubMed

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  • 16

    Arora P, Gupta A, Golzy M, Patel N, Carter RL, Jalal K, et al.: Proton pump inhibitors are associated with increased risk of development of chronic kidney disease. BMC Nephrol 17: 112, 2016 PubMed

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  • 17

    Moledina DG, Perazella MA: Proton pump inhibitors and CKD. J Am Soc Nephrol 27: 29262928, 2016 PubMed

  • 18

    Nochaiwong S, Ruengorn C, Awiphan R, Koyratkoson K, Chaisai C, Noppakun K, et al.: The association between proton pump inhibitor use and the risk of adverse kidney outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Nephrol Dial Transplant 33: 331342, 2018 PubMed

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  • 19

    Helsby NA, Lo WY, Simpson IJ, Voss DM, Logan KE, Searle M, et al.: Omeprazole-induced acute interstitial nephritis is not related to CYP2C19 genotype or CYP2C19 phenotype. Br J Clin Pharmacol 69: 516519, 2010 PubMed

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  • 20

    Shirali AC, Perazella MA, Gettinger S: Association of acute interstitial nephritis with programmed cell death 1 inhibitor therapy in lung cancer patients. Am J Kidney Dis 68: 287291, 2016 PubMed

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  • 21

    Cortazar FB, Marrone KA, Troxell ML, Ralto KM, Hoenig MP, Brahmer JR, et al.: Clinicopathological features of acute kidney injury associated with immune checkpoint inhibitors. Kidney Int 90: 638647, 2016 PubMed

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  • 22

    Seethapathy H, Zhao S, Chute DF, Zubiri L, Oppong Y, Strohbehn I, et al.: The incidence, causes, and risk factors of acute kidney injury in patients receiving immune checkpoint inhibitors. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 14: 16921700, 2019 PubMed

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  • 23

    Manohar S, Kompotiatis P, Thongprayoon C, Cheungpasitporn W, Herrmann J, Herrmann SM: Programmed cell death protein 1 inhibitor treatment is associated with acute kidney injury and hypocalcemia: Meta-analysis. Nephrol Dial Transplant 34: 108117, 2019 PubMed

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  • 24

    Muriithi AK, Leung N, Valeri AM, Cornell LD, Sethi S, Fidler ME, et al.: Biopsy-proven acute interstitial nephritis, 1993-2011: A case series. Am J Kidney Dis 64: 558566, 2014 PubMed

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  • 25

    Su T, Gu Y, Sun P, Tang J, Wang S, Liu G, et al.: Etiology and renal outcomes of acute tubulointerstitial nephritis: A single-center prospective cohort study in China. Nephrol Dial Transplant 33: 11801188, 2018 PubMed

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  • 26

    Caravaca-Fontán F, Shabaka A, Sánchez-Álamo B, de Lorenzo A, Díaz M, Blasco M, et al.; Spanish Group for the Study of Glomerular Diseases (GLOSEN): Recurrent acute interstitial nephritis: what lies beneath. Clin Kidney J 14: 197204, 2020 PubMed

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  • 27

    Chu R, Li C, Wang S, Zou W, Liu G, Yang L: Assessment of KDIGO definitions in patients with histopathologic evidence of acute renal disease. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 9: 11751182, 2014 PubMed

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  • 28

    National Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Acute Kidney Injury Work Group. KDIGO clinical practice guideline for acute kidney injury. Kidney Int Suppl 2: 1936, 2012

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  • 29

    Fogazzi GB, Ferrari B, Garigali G, Simonini P, Consonni D: Urinary sediment findings in acute interstitial nephritis. Am J Kidney Dis 60: 330332, 2012 PubMed

  • 30

    Perazella MA, Bomback AS: Urinary eosinophils in AIN: Farewell to an old biomarker? Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 8: 18411843, 2013 PubMed

  • 31

    Moledina DG, Eadon MT, Calderon F, Yamamoto Y, Shaw M, Perazella MA, et al.: Development and external validation of a diagnostic model for biopsy-proven acute interstitial nephritis using electronic health record data. Nephrol Dial Transplant 346: gfab346, 2021 10.1093/ndt/gfab346PubMed

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  • 32

    D’Agati VD, Theise ND, Pirani CL, Knowles DM, Appel GB: Interstitial nephritis related to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents and beta-lactam antibiotics: A comparative study of the interstitial infiltrates using monoclonal antibodies. Mod Pathol 2: 390396, 1989 PubMed

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  • 33

    Zand L, Monaghan M, Griffin BR, Wagner SJ, Criaci IM, Kamal A, et al.: The role of type I hypersensitivity reaction and IgE-mediated mast cell activation in acute interstitial nephritis. Clin Nephrol 84: 138144, 2015 PubMed

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  • 34

    Liapis H, Gaut JP, Klein C, Bagnasco S, Kraus E, Farris AB 3rd, et al.; Banff Working Group: Banff histopathological consensus criteria for preimplantation kidney biopsies. Am J Transplant 17: 140150, 2017 PubMed

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  • 35

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  • 36

    Berney-Meyer L, Hung N, Slatter T, Schollum JB, Kitching AR, Walker RJ: Omeprazole-induced acute interstitial nephritis: A possible Th1-Th17-mediated injury? Nephrology (Carlton) 19: 359365, 2014 PubMed

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  • 37

    Sun PP, Zhou XJ, Su JQ, Wang C, Yu XJ, Su T, et al.: Urine macrophages reflect kidney macrophage content during acute tubular interstitial and glomerular injury. Clin Immunol 205: 6574, 2019 PubMed

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  • 38

    Moledina DG, Luciano RL, Kukova L, Chan L, Saha A, Nadkarni G, et al.: Kidney biopsy-related complications in hospitalized patients with acute kidney disease. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 13: 16331640, 2018 PubMed

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    Isik B, Alexander MP, Manohar S, Vaughan L, Kottschade L, Markovic S, et al.: Biomarkers, clinical features, and rechallenge for immune checkpoint inhibitor renal immune-related adverse events. Kidney Int Rep 6: 10221031, 2021 PubMed

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  • 42

    Moledina DG, Perazella MA: Treatment of drug-induced acute tubulointerstitial nephritis: the search for better evidence. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 13: 17851787, 2018 PubMed

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    Prendecki M, Tanna A, Salama AD, Tam FW, Cairns T, Taube D, et al.: Long-term outcome in biopsy-proven acute interstitial nephritis treated with steroids. Clin Kidney J 10: 233239, 2017 PubMed

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    Wendt R, Schliecker J, Beige J: Inflammatory leucocyte infiltrates are associated with recovery in biopsy-proven acute interstitial nephritis: A 20-year registry-based case series. Clin Kidney J 12: 814820, 2019 PubMed

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  • 54

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    Perazella MA: Drug-induced acute kidney injury: diverse mechanisms of tubular injury. Curr Opin Crit Care 25: 550557, 2019 PubMed

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