Management of Hypertension
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  • 1 Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota
  • 1.

    Whelton PK , Carey RM , Aronow WS , Casey DE Jr , Collins KJ , Dennison Himmelfarb C , et al..: 2017 guideline for the prevention, detection, evaluation, and management of high blood pressure in adults: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association task force on clinical practice guidelines. Hypertension 71: e13e115, 2018 PubMed

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  • 2.

    Williams B , Mancia G , Spiering W , Agabiti Rosei E , Azizi M , Burnier M , et al..: ESC Scientific Document Group: 2018 ESC/ESH guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension. Eur Heart J 39: 30213104, 2018 PubMed

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  • 3.

    Hypertension in adults: diagnosis and management. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence website. https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng136. NICE guideline [NG136]. Published August 28, 2019. Accessed April 6, 2020

  • 4.

    Nerenberg KA , Zarnke KB , Leung AA , Dasgupta K , Butalia S , McBrien K , et al..; Hypertension Canada: Hypertension Canada’s 2018 guidelines for diagnosis, risk assessment, prevention, and treatment of hypertension in adults and children. Can J Cardiol 34: 506525, 2018 PubMed

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  • 5.

    James PA , Oparil S , Carter BL , Cushman WC , Dennison-Himmelfarb C , Handler J , et al..: 2014 evidence-based guideline for the management of high blood pressure in adults: report from the panel members appointed to the Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8). JAMA 311: 507520, 2014 PubMed

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  • 6.

    Qaseem A , Wilt TJ , Rich R , Humphrey LL , Frost J , Forciea MA ; Clinical Guidelines Committee of the American College of Physicians and the Commission on Health of the Public and Science of the American Academy of Family Physicians: Pharmacologic treatment of hypertension in adults aged 60 years or older to higher versus lower blood pressure targets: a clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians and the American Academy of Family Physicians. Ann Intern Med 166: 430437, 2017 PubMed

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  • 7.

    Byrd JB , Brook RD : Hypertension. Ann Intern Med 170: ITC65ITC80, 2019 PubMed

  • 8.

    Reboussin DM , Allen NB , Griswold ME , Guallar E , Hong Y , Lackland DT , et al..: Systematic Review for the 2017 ACC/AHA/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/AGS/APhA/ASH/ASPC/NMA/PCNA guideline for the prevention, detection, evaluation, and management of high blood pressure in adults: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association task force on clinical practice guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol 71: 21762198, 2018 PubMed

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  • 9.

    Sundstrom J , et al..; Blood Pressure Lowering Treatment Trialists’ Collaboration: Blood pressure-lowering treatment based on cardiovascular risk: a meta-analysis of individual patient data. Lancet 384: 591598, 2014 PubMed

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  • 10.

    Muntner P , Carey RM , Gidding S , Jones DW , Taler SJ , Wright JT Jr , et al..: Potential US population impact of the 2017 ACC/AHA high blood pressure guideline. J Am Coll Cardiol 69: 24462456, 2017 PubMed

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  • 11.

    ALLHAT Officers and Coordinators for the ALLHAT Collaborative Research Group. The Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial: Major outcomes in high-risk hypertensive patients randomized to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or calcium channel blocker vs diuretic: the antihypertensive and lipid-lowering treatment to prevent heart attack trial (ALLHAT). JAMA 288: 29812997, 2002 PubMed

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  • 12.

    Wright JT Jr , Williamson JD , Whelton PK , Snyder JK , Sink KM , Rocco MV , et al..; SPRINT Research Group: A randomized trial of intensive versus standard blood-pressure control. N Engl J Med 373: 21032116, 2015 PubMed

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  • 13.

    Cheung AK , Rahman M , Reboussin DM , Craven TE , Greene T , Kimmel PL , et al..; SPRINT Research Group: Effects of intensive BP control in CKD. J Am Soc Nephrol 28: 28122823, 2017 PubMed

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  • 14.

    Beddhu S , Rocco MV , Toto R , Craven TE , Greene T , Bhatt U , et al..; SPRINT Research Group: Effects of intensive systolic blood pressure control on kidney and cardiovascular outcomes in persons without kidney disease: a secondary analysis of a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med 167: 375383, 2017 PubMed

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  • 15.

    Zhang WR , Craven TE , Malhotra R , Cheung AK , Chonchol M , Drawz P , et al..; SPRINT Research Group: Kidney damage biomarkers and incident chronic kidney disease during blood pressure reduction: a case-control study. Ann Intern Med 169: 610618, 2018 PubMed

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  • 16.

    Malhotra R , Katz R , Jotwani V , Ambrosius WT , Raphael KL , Haley W , et al..: Urine markers of kidney tubule cell injury and kidney function decline in SPRINT trial participants with CKD. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 15: 349358, 2020 PubMed

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  • 17.

    Cheung AK , Chang TI , Cushman WC , Furth SL , Ix JH , Pecoits-Filho R , et al..; Conference Participants: Blood pressure in chronic kidney disease: conclusions from a Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) controversies conference. Kidney Int 95: 10271036, 2019 PubMed

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  • 18.

    Williamson JD , Pajewski NM , Auchus AP , Bryan RN , Chelune G , Cheung AK , et al..; SPRINT MIND Investigators for the SPRINT Research Group: Effect of intensive vs standard blood pressure control on probable dementia: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA 321: 553561, 2019 PubMed

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  • 19.

    Prabhakaran S : Blood pressure, brain volume and white matter hyperintensities, and dementia risk. JAMA 322: 512513, 2019 PubMed

  • 20.

    Croall ID , Tozer DJ , Moynihan B , Khan U , O’Brien JT , Morris RG , et al..; PRESERVE Study Team: Effect of standard vs intensive blood pressure control on cerebral blood flow in small vessel disease: the PRESERVE randomized clinical trial. JAMA Neurol 75: 720727, 2018 PubMed

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  • 21.

    Suchard MA , Schuemie MJ , Krumholz HM , You SC , Chen R , Pratt N , et al..: Comprehensive comparative effectiveness and safety of first-line antihypertensive drug classes: a systematic, multinational, large-scale analysis. Lancet 394: 18161826, 2019 PubMed

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  • 22.

    Wei J , Galaviz KI , Kowalski AJ , Magee MJ , Haw JS , Narayan KMV , et al..: Comparison of cardiovascular events among users of different classes of antihypertension medications: a systematic review and network meta-analysis. JAMA Netw Open 3: e1921618, 2020 PubMed

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  • 23.

    Rea F , Corrao G , Merlino L , Mancia G : Initial antihypertensive treatment strategies and therapeutic inertia. Hypertension 72: 846853, 2018 PubMed

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  • 24.

    Ojji DB , Mayosi B , Francis V , Badri M , Cornelius V , Smythe W , et al..; CREOLE Study Investigators: Comparison of dual therapies for lowering blood pressure in black Africans. N Engl J Med 380: 24292439, 2019 PubMed

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  • 25.

    Hripcsak G , Suchard MA , Shea S , Chen R , You SC , Pratt N , et al..: Comparison of cardiovascular and safety outcomes of chlorthalidone vs hydrochlorothiazide to treat hypertension. JAMA Intern Med 180: 542551, 2020 PubMed

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  • 26.

    Webster R , Salam A , de Silva HA , Selak V , Stepien S , Rajapakse S , et al..; TRIUMPH Study Group: Fixed low-dose triple combination antihypertensive medication vs usual care for blood pressure control in patients with mild to moderate hypertension in Sri Lanka: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA 320: 566579, 2018 PubMed

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  • 27.

    Hermida RC , Ayala DE , Mojón A , Fernández JR : Influence of circadian time of hypertension treatment on cardiovascular risk: results of the MAPEC study. Chronobiol Int 27: 16291651, 2010 PubMed

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  • 28.

    Poulter NR , Savopoulos C , Anjum A , Apostolopoulou M , Chapman N , Cross M , et al..: Randomized crossover trial of the impact of morning or evening dosing of antihypertensive agents on 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure. Hypertension 72: 870873, 2018 PubMed

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  • 29.

    Hermida RC , Crespo JJ , Domínguez-Sardiña M , Otero A , Moyá A , Ríos MT , et al..; Hygia Project Investigators: Bedtime hypertension treatment improves cardiovascular risk reduction: the Hygia Chronotherapy Trial [published online ahead of print Oct 22, 2019]. Eur Heart J doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehz754 PubMed

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  • 30.

    Laffin LJ , Bakris GL : Has the sun set on nighttime dosing in uncomplicated hypertension? Hypertension 72: 836838, 2018 PubMed

  • 31.

    Tomaszewski M , White C , Patel P , Masca N , Damani R , Hepworth J , et al..: High rates of non-adherence to antihypertensive treatment revealed by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HP LC-MS/MS) urine analysis. Heart 100: 855861, 2014 PubMed

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  • 32.

    Persell SD , Karmali KN , Lazar D , Friesema EM , Lee JY , Rademaker A , et al..: Effect of electronic health record-based medication support and nurse-led medication therapy management on hypertension and medication self-management: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Intern Med 178: 10691077, 2018 PubMed

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  • 33.

    Morawski K , Ghazinouri R , Krumme A , Lauffenburger JC , Lu Z , Durfee E , et al..: Association of a smartphone application with medication adherence and blood pressure control: the MedISAFE-BP randomized clinical trial. JAMA Intern Med 178: 802809, 2018 PubMed

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  • 34.

    Carey RM , Calhoun DA , Bakris GL , Brook RD , Daugherty SL , Dennison-Himmelfarb CR , et al..; American Heart Association Professional/Public Education and Publications Committee of the Council on Hypertension; Council on Cardiovascular and Stroke Nursing; Council on Clinical Cardiology; Council on Genomic and Precision Medicine; Council on Peripheral Vascular Disease; Council on Quality of Care and Outcomes Research; and Stroke Council: Resistant hypertension: detection, evaluation, and management: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Hypertension 72: e53e90, 2018 PubMed

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  • 35.

    Williams B , MacDonald TM , Morant S , Webb DJ , Sever P , McInnes G , et al..; British Hypertension Society’s PATHWAY Studies Group: Spironolactone versus placebo, bisoprolol, and doxazosin to determine the optimal treatment for drug-resistant hypertension (PATHWAY-2): A randomised, double-blind, crossover trial. Lancet 386: 20592068, 2015 PubMed

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  • 36.

    American Diabetes Association. 10. Cardiovascular disease and risk management: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes-2020. Diabetes Care 43(Suppl.1):S111S134, 2020

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