Management of Hypertension
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  • 1 Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota
  • 1.

    Whelton PK, Carey RM, Aronow WS, Casey DE Jr, Collins KJ, Dennison Himmelfarb C, .: 2017 guideline for the prevention, detection, evaluation, and management of high blood pressure in adults: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association task force on clinical practice guidelines. Hypertension 71: e13e115, 2018 PubMed

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  • 2.

    Williams B, Mancia G, Spiering W, Agabiti Rosei E, Azizi M, Burnier M, .: ESC Scientific Document Group: 2018 ESC/ESH guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension. Eur Heart J 39: 30213104, 2018 PubMed

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  • 3.

    Hypertension in adults: diagnosis and management. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence website. https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng136. NICE guideline [NG136]. Published August 28, 2019. Accessed April 6, 2020

  • 4.

    Nerenberg KA, Zarnke KB, Leung AA, Dasgupta K, Butalia S, McBrien K, .; Hypertension Canada: Hypertension Canada’s 2018 guidelines for diagnosis, risk assessment, prevention, and treatment of hypertension in adults and children. Can J Cardiol 34: 506525, 2018 PubMed

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  • 5.

    James PA, Oparil S, Carter BL, Cushman WC, Dennison-Himmelfarb C, Handler J, .: 2014 evidence-based guideline for the management of high blood pressure in adults: report from the panel members appointed to the Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8). JAMA 311: 507520, 2014 PubMed

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  • 6.

    Qaseem A, Wilt TJ, Rich R, Humphrey LL, Frost J, Forciea MA; Clinical Guidelines Committee of the American College of Physicians and the Commission on Health of the Public and Science of the American Academy of Family Physicians: Pharmacologic treatment of hypertension in adults aged 60 years or older to higher versus lower blood pressure targets: a clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians and the American Academy of Family Physicians. Ann Intern Med 166: 430437, 2017 PubMed

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  • 7.

    Byrd JB, Brook RD: Hypertension. Ann Intern Med 170: ITC65ITC80, 2019 PubMed

  • 8.

    Reboussin DM, Allen NB, Griswold ME, Guallar E, Hong Y, Lackland DT, .: Systematic Review for the 2017 ACC/AHA/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/AGS/APhA/ASH/ASPC/NMA/PCNA guideline for the prevention, detection, evaluation, and management of high blood pressure in adults: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association task force on clinical practice guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol 71: 21762198, 2018 PubMed

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  • 9.

    Sundstrom J, .; Blood Pressure Lowering Treatment Trialists’ Collaboration: Blood pressure-lowering treatment based on cardiovascular risk: a meta-analysis of individual patient data. Lancet 384: 591598, 2014 PubMed

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  • 10.

    Muntner P, Carey RM, Gidding S, Jones DW, Taler SJ, Wright JT Jr, .: Potential US population impact of the 2017 ACC/AHA high blood pressure guideline. J Am Coll Cardiol 69: 24462456, 2017 PubMed

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  • 11.

    ALLHAT Officers and Coordinators for the ALLHAT Collaborative Research Group. The Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial: Major outcomes in high-risk hypertensive patients randomized to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or calcium channel blocker vs diuretic: the antihypertensive and lipid-lowering treatment to prevent heart attack trial (ALLHAT). JAMA 288: 29812997, 2002 PubMed

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  • 12.

    Wright JT Jr, Williamson JD, Whelton PK, Snyder JK, Sink KM, Rocco MV, .; SPRINT Research Group: A randomized trial of intensive versus standard blood-pressure control. N Engl J Med 373: 21032116, 2015 PubMed

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  • 13.

    Cheung AK, Rahman M, Reboussin DM, Craven TE, Greene T, Kimmel PL, .; SPRINT Research Group: Effects of intensive BP control in CKD. J Am Soc Nephrol 28: 28122823, 2017 PubMed

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  • 14.

    Beddhu S, Rocco MV, Toto R, Craven TE, Greene T, Bhatt U, .; SPRINT Research Group: Effects of intensive systolic blood pressure control on kidney and cardiovascular outcomes in persons without kidney disease: a secondary analysis of a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med 167: 375383, 2017 PubMed

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  • 15.

    Zhang WR, Craven TE, Malhotra R, Cheung AK, Chonchol M, Drawz P, .; SPRINT Research Group: Kidney damage biomarkers and incident chronic kidney disease during blood pressure reduction: a case-control study. Ann Intern Med 169: 610618, 2018 PubMed

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  • 16.

    Malhotra R, Katz R, Jotwani V, Ambrosius WT, Raphael KL, Haley W, .: Urine markers of kidney tubule cell injury and kidney function decline in SPRINT trial participants with CKD. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 15: 349358, 2020 PubMed

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  • 17.

    Cheung AK, Chang TI, Cushman WC, Furth SL, Ix JH, Pecoits-Filho R, .; Conference Participants: Blood pressure in chronic kidney disease: conclusions from a Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) controversies conference. Kidney Int 95: 10271036, 2019 PubMed

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  • 18.

    Williamson JD, Pajewski NM, Auchus AP, Bryan RN, Chelune G, Cheung AK, .; SPRINT MIND Investigators for the SPRINT Research Group: Effect of intensive vs standard blood pressure control on probable dementia: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA 321: 553561, 2019 PubMed

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  • 19.

    Prabhakaran S: Blood pressure, brain volume and white matter hyperintensities, and dementia risk. JAMA 322: 512513, 2019 PubMed

  • 20.

    Croall ID, Tozer DJ, Moynihan B, Khan U, O’Brien JT, Morris RG, .; PRESERVE Study Team: Effect of standard vs intensive blood pressure control on cerebral blood flow in small vessel disease: the PRESERVE randomized clinical trial. JAMA Neurol 75: 720727, 2018 PubMed

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  • 21.

    Suchard MA, Schuemie MJ, Krumholz HM, You SC, Chen R, Pratt N, .: Comprehensive comparative effectiveness and safety of first-line antihypertensive drug classes: a systematic, multinational, large-scale analysis. Lancet 394: 18161826, 2019 PubMed

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  • 22.

    Wei J, Galaviz KI, Kowalski AJ, Magee MJ, Haw JS, Narayan KMV, .: Comparison of cardiovascular events among users of different classes of antihypertension medications: a systematic review and network meta-analysis. JAMA Netw Open 3: e1921618, 2020 PubMed

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  • 23.

    Rea F, Corrao G, Merlino L, Mancia G: Initial antihypertensive treatment strategies and therapeutic inertia. Hypertension 72: 846853, 2018 PubMed

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  • 24.

    Ojji DB, Mayosi B, Francis V, Badri M, Cornelius V, Smythe W, .; CREOLE Study Investigators: Comparison of dual therapies for lowering blood pressure in black Africans. N Engl J Med 380: 24292439, 2019 PubMed

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  • 25.

    Hripcsak G, Suchard MA, Shea S, Chen R, You SC, Pratt N, .: Comparison of cardiovascular and safety outcomes of chlorthalidone vs hydrochlorothiazide to treat hypertension. JAMA Intern Med 180: 542551, 2020 PubMed

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  • 26.

    Webster R, Salam A, de Silva HA, Selak V, Stepien S, Rajapakse S, .; TRIUMPH Study Group: Fixed low-dose triple combination antihypertensive medication vs usual care for blood pressure control in patients with mild to moderate hypertension in Sri Lanka: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA 320: 566579, 2018 PubMed

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  • 27.

    Hermida RC, Ayala DE, Mojón A, Fernández JR: Influence of circadian time of hypertension treatment on cardiovascular risk: results of the MAPEC study. Chronobiol Int 27: 16291651, 2010 PubMed

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  • 28.

    Poulter NR, Savopoulos C, Anjum A, Apostolopoulou M, Chapman N, Cross M, .: Randomized crossover trial of the impact of morning or evening dosing of antihypertensive agents on 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure. Hypertension 72: 870873, 2018 PubMed

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  • 29.

    Hermida RC, Crespo JJ, Domínguez-Sardiña M, Otero A, Moyá A, Ríos MT, .; Hygia Project Investigators: Bedtime hypertension treatment improves cardiovascular risk reduction: the Hygia Chronotherapy Trial [published online ahead of print Oct 22, 2019]. Eur Heart J doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehz754 PubMed

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  • 30.

    Laffin LJ, Bakris GL: Has the sun set on nighttime dosing in uncomplicated hypertension? Hypertension 72: 836838, 2018 PubMed

  • 31.

    Tomaszewski M, White C, Patel P, Masca N, Damani R, Hepworth J, .: High rates of non-adherence to antihypertensive treatment revealed by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HP LC-MS/MS) urine analysis. Heart 100: 855861, 2014 PubMed

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  • 32.

    Persell SD, Karmali KN, Lazar D, Friesema EM, Lee JY, Rademaker A, .: Effect of electronic health record-based medication support and nurse-led medication therapy management on hypertension and medication self-management: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Intern Med 178: 10691077, 2018 PubMed

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  • 33.

    Morawski K, Ghazinouri R, Krumme A, Lauffenburger JC, Lu Z, Durfee E, .: Association of a smartphone application with medication adherence and blood pressure control: the MedISAFE-BP randomized clinical trial. JAMA Intern Med 178: 802809, 2018 PubMed

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  • 34.

    Carey RM, Calhoun DA, Bakris GL, Brook RD, Daugherty SL, Dennison-Himmelfarb CR, .; American Heart Association Professional/Public Education and Publications Committee of the Council on Hypertension; Council on Cardiovascular and Stroke Nursing; Council on Clinical Cardiology; Council on Genomic and Precision Medicine; Council on Peripheral Vascular Disease; Council on Quality of Care and Outcomes Research; and Stroke Council: Resistant hypertension: detection, evaluation, and management: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Hypertension 72: e53e90, 2018 PubMed

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  • 35.

    Williams B, MacDonald TM, Morant S, Webb DJ, Sever P, McInnes G, .; British Hypertension Society’s PATHWAY Studies Group: Spironolactone versus placebo, bisoprolol, and doxazosin to determine the optimal treatment for drug-resistant hypertension (PATHWAY-2): A randomised, double-blind, crossover trial. Lancet 386: 20592068, 2015 PubMed

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  • 36.

    American Diabetes Association. 10. Cardiovascular disease and risk management: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes-2020. Diabetes Care 43(Suppl.1):S111S134, 2020

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